Digital Installation Services

3M® 3500 Pressure Sensitive Adhesive
Intended for making changeable, short-term, durable graphics. It has a unique design and construction that allows easy removal for up to two years with little to no adhesive residue.

30-Sheet Poster
A standardized poster format, typically measuring 12’3″ x 24’6″.

8-Sheet Poster
A standardized poster format, typically measuring 6′ x 12′.



Advertising Agency

An independent business organization that creates, prepares, and places advertisements in various media for its clients.

Agency Commission

A fee paid by a media company to an advertising agency based on a percentage of the cost of the advertising contract.

Airport Displays

A variety of types of advertising displays available at airports, ranging from Dioramas (backlit wall posters) to freestanding islands or specially built exhibits.


The number of illuminated and non-illuminated panels in a showing. The number of panels in a GRP/Showing is referred to as the market allotment, which varies from market to market.


In accounting, the estimated decline each year in the value of an intangible asset after original purchase. For billboards, amortization describes a grace period between the time a sign owner is notified that a sign must be removed, and the time when the sign is actually removed. Also a term used in contracting for Bulletins where the cost of features such as added embellishments is paid over the period of contract rather than at the beginning.


The position of a billboard face in reference to the roadway.


Movement or motion on a billboard face that may include moving parts. Not permitted in some states.

Annual ADT

Annual average daily traffic, based on statistics from counts of motor vehicles at particular sites.


Distance from which an outdoor advertising structure first becomes clearly visible, measured in feet or seconds.


Area beneath the bottom molding of the front of a billboard. Synonymous with “base.”

Arteries or Arterials

The major streets of a city or town.

Audited Circulation

Independently verified traffic circulation data for Out-of-Home media according to established national procedures approved by the buyer and seller community. Normally considered to be verified by the Traffic Audit Bureau for Media Measurement (TAB) (similar to Audit Bureau of Circulations).


Number of panels available for sale on any given posting date.

Average Date of Completion

Averaging date when several postings of painted Bulletins in a single contract are completed. Some billboard postings are completed and exposed to traffic earlier or later than others.

ABN (Ad-based Network)

Revenue from third party advertising is not necessarily the primary objective of a Digital Signage network. Digital signage networks that do support third party advertising is normally referred to as ad-based networks, and rely on the ad-revenue to sustain the network and generate an extra revenue stream to enhance return on investment (ROI) for the system owner/s. In order for an ABN to be viable it is required to have the right balance of relevant content to advertising, as well as sufficient dwell-time in order to engage the viewer.


Buying decision motivated at the point-of-purchase by such factors as buying convenience, price, promotion, impulse selection, etc.


A streaming media technology now known as DirectShow, developed by Microsoft to display the video on screen. ActiveMovie allows users to view media streams, whether from local hard drive or distributed via the Internet.


An open integration platform that provides web developers a fast and easy way to create integrated programs and content for the Internet and Intranets. Using ActiveX, you can easily insert multimedia effects, interactive objects, and sophisticated programs into a Web page.

A/V Distribution System

Refers to the distribution of multimedia content from the media player to the display device.

Advertising Network

System of digital displays connected and controlled through a network such as the Internet.

Advertising Displays

Any location-based display that carries advertising. Air

an option that helps keep underlined text legible. An outline that is the color of the background (“air”) is applied to the letters of underlined text. When the color of the text and the underline is the same, the air keeps the text and underline from blending together.


From a digital signage operator’s viewpoint, an alert could be a status message that is sent to report an error or some other unexpected system condition. On the message side of a digital display system, an alert could be either locally or regionally generated then transmitted via a digital signage network as a warning message.


A sequence of frames that, when played in order at sufficient speed, presents a smoothly moving image like a film or video. An animation can be digitized video, computer-generated graphics, or a combination.

Animated GIF

An animation in the GIF format, capable of automatic looping playback. See also GIF.


Audio, video, static photography, logo type, etc used to create finished advertising spots.

ATM toppers

Video screens built into ATMs (automatic teller machines) that run advertising and other information independent of the ATM.


Off the air digital TV channels using a set of standards developed by the Advanced Television Systems Committee for digital television transmission that replaced much of the analog NTSC television system.


In relation to digital signage, the possible viewers of an ad. This is sometimes used loosely with the word “target” to suggest possible catchments of future buying consumers.

Authoring Station

A machine running software, used for authoring and publishing the playlists and schedules that are sent to media players.

Authoring System

Software for digital signage content programming.


AVI stands for Audio Video Interleave and was introduced by Microsoft in 1992 as a video file format. AVI files can contain both audio and video data in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. Like the DVD video format, AVI files support multiple streaming audio and video, although these features are seldom used.

Advertising Agency

An independent business organization that creates, prepares, and places advertisements in various media for its clients.

Agency Commission

A fee paid by a media company to an advertising agency based on a percentage of the cost of the advertising contract.

Airport Displays

A variety of types of advertising displays available at airports, ranging from Dioramas (backlit wall posters) to freestanding islands or specially built exhibits.


The number of illuminated and non-illuminated panels in a showing. The number of panels in a GRP/Showing is referred to as the market allotment, which varies from market to market.


In accounting, the estimated decline each year in the value of an intangible asset after original purchase. For billboards, amortization describes a grace period between the time a sign owner is notified that a sign must be removed, and the time when the sign is actually removed. Also a term used in contracting for Bulletins where the cost of features such as added embellishments are paid over the period of contract rather than at the beginning.


The position of a billboard face in reference to the roadway.


Movement or motion on a billboard face that may include moving parts. Not permitted in some states.

Annual ADT

Annual average daily traffic, based on statistics from counts of motor vehicles at particular sites.


Distance from which an outdoor advertising structure first becomes clearly visible, measured in feet or seconds.


Area beneath the bottom molding of the front of a billboard. Synonymous with “base.”

Arteries or Arterials

The major streets of a city or town.

Audited Circulation

Independently verified traffic circulation data for Out-of-Home media according to established national procedures approved by the buyer and seller community. Normally considered to be verified by the Traffic Audit Bureau for Media Measurement (TAB) (similar to Audit Bureau of Circulations).


Number of panels available for sale on any given posting date.

Average Date of Completion. Averaging date when several postings of painted Bulletins in a single contract are completed. Some billboard postings are completed and exposed to traffic earlier or later than others.

Access control

The protection of confidential material and data to individual users.


A set of privileges assigned to a particular user within a software program.


Refers to a buying decision motivated at the point-of-purchase by such factors as buying convenience, price, promotion, impulse selection, etc.


The Microsoft graphic driver software used by Windows Media Player. ActiveMovie supports AVI, QuickTime, and MPEG animations.


A Microsoft software platform used on the web for enhancing interactive media control.

Ad Audience

Refers to the number and type of people exposed to the specific ad, with an opportunity to see.

Ad Channels

Channels on a digital signage network which are dedicated to running advertisements. Many times channels can be sources of revenue for local companies who might be able to use the digital signage network.

Ad Exposure Frequency

The number of separate ad exposures of an ad audience member during the venue visit, or other period.

Ad Exposure Reach

The net number of viewers, of specified characteristics, in the vehicle zone who watched and listened to the ad, during a time period.

Ad Exposure Time

The number of seconds spent watching and listening to the ad.

Ad Model

(See Business Model) the “Ad Model” creates profit through ad display and sponsorship revenues, coupon redemption commissions and marketing intelligence sales.

Ad Rotation Duration

The number of seconds required to view all of the ads in a rotation or loop.


A commercial time slot immediately before or after a specific ad or program.

Advertising Agency

A company that does media buying, planning and trafficking, which are carried out by credited advertising agencies. Selecting an advertising agency can ensure your advertisements are placed where you will gain maximum exposure and agencies will make decisions about the elements of design and content of your advertisement.

Advertising Budget

Refers to the sum allocated by a company to its marketing department or to its advertising. Money set aside by the advertiser to pay for advertising. There are a variety of methods for determining the most desirable size of an advertising budget.

Advertising Displays

A display in digital signage used for advertising.

Advertising Spot

A unit interval (e.g. 10-second, 15-second, 20-second, 30-second, etc.) containing a commercial message supplied by an advertiser for insertion in the transmissions of a TV channel or digital signage network.


A monitor set up as an automated status message to indicate an unexpected error within a software program has occurred.


A position of an element, whether text or graphic on a display. It can be aligned on left, right, top, bottom or center.


The number of units required to achieve a desired GRP level in a market. Traditional poster panel showings consist of a quantity of illuminated and non illuminated displays that will vary by market size and population.

Alternative Media

Outdoor formats that do not fall into the categories of: billboards, street furniture or transit. Most alternative media is used to create customized solutions for advertisers.

Alternative Out-of-Home Advertising

A segment reported advertising expenditures that includes spending on digital billboards, out-of-home television networks and place-based media.

Ambient Light

Is the light that exists in a scene. Also referred to as “natural light” or “existing light,” ambient light can be the found light inside a home, a restaurant or concert hall, or a bright, sunny day, a deep foggy day, a city at night…in other words, any kind of pre-existing light.

Angle Iron

A length of steel or iron bent at a right angle along its long dimension, used as a support or structural framework.


A running sequence of still frames that, when played in succession at high speeds, presents smooth moving images like a film or video.


A very generalized term for a software program designed for a specific function.


The distance measured along the line of travel from the point where an advertising unit first becomes fully visible to the point where the copy is no longer readable.


Content and information that has been stored in an accessible format.


In the AV world, it’s any unwanted object, visual distortion, or defect on a video screen.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Exchange)

A universal standard for representing text, numbers, punctuation marks, letters, and instructions in computer software.

ASF (Active Streaming Format)

Windows Media file format standard.

Aspect ratio

The dimensions of a display screen’s image expressed as a ratio of the horizontal width to the vertical height.


Audio, video, still photography, logo graphics etc., and similar elements which are used as components to create finished advertising spots.


The loss of signal strength as it flows through cables usually expressed in decibels (dB).


A specific characteristic of a style that can be modified.

Audience Composition

The demographic and/or socioeconomic profile of the network’s audience that is inclusive of the percentage of the total audience falling in each segment.

Audience Demographics

Refers to the characteristics that define who the target audience is. Such items as age, gender, ethnicity, cultural background, religious or political affiliations, economic status, family background and group memberships may help define the demographic.


The number and type of people exposed to a vehicle with an opportunity to see the typical advertising or informational segment.

Audited Circulation

The certification of traffic circulation. The Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB) independently audits records and circulation data for outdoor advertising according to established national procedures approved by the buyer and seller community. Audited Circulation: the certification of traffic count or circulation by a recognized third party according to national procedures approved by the buyer and seller community.

Authoring Station

A publishing device for the programs that are sent to players running signage software.

Authoring Tools

Software used by developers of multimedia that helps create products. Authoring tools allow for computer programming without the needed knowledge of software programming languages.


The process of creating and integrating content from various sources for the purpose of displaying on digital

signage; often involves converting and sizing images and other digital media.

AV Distribution System

The chain of audio and video devices used to distribute audio and video signals from the media player, PC, or other audio/video source to the point of display.

Avail or Ad Spot Availability- Availability

A broadcast time period that is open for reservation by an advertiser in response to an advertiser’s or agencies initial inquiry (slang “avail”).

AVI (Audio Video Interleaved)

A large file format for developing and viewing audio/video files.


Knowledge or understanding of an object, idea or thought. In this case, the consumer is cognizant of the digital place-based network, the programming, and/or the advertising contained within.



Billboard faces erected on one structure facing in opposite directions.

Backlighting (Backlit)

Advertising structures that house illumination in a box, casting light out through translucent advertising printed on plastic or heavy-duty paper. Used especially at night.


Trim or elongated panel beneath the bottom molding, usually found on painted Bulletins. Synonymous with “apron.”


Large panel or flat surface that is intended for viewing an advertisement or notice from extended distances, generally more than 50 feet. Usually means standardized wooden or steel structures that carry either poster paper or painted messages as advertisements to motor vehicle traffic. The four most common types of billboards are referred to as Spectaculars, Bulletins, Posters, and Junior Posters.


Place where advertising paper is stored and prepared for the bill poster’s use.

Blanket Contract

Contract for a specified amount of money that pays for space purchased as authorizations are received.

Blanking Paper

White paper surrounding the advertising copy to form a border between the ad and the panel molding. On 30-sheet Posters, blanking is 6.5 inches to 11.5 inches at the sides, and 5 inches at the top and bottom.

Bleed Posting

Copy that extends to the edge of a billboard on all sides.


A production difficulty where the previous design can be seen through the current message. Can occur because of the kind of paper used, a chemical reaction of certain pigments, or because of excessive wetting from heavy rain.


Paint or paper separating from the structure by forming air pockets or a bubble.

Blocked Panel

Obstructed view of a billboard face, usually on a permanent basis.


An object that obstructs the view of a billboard face.


Com term for billboards.


Billboards already sold to an advertiser for a given posting date. Also, acceptance of a contract for advertising space by the plant operator.

Bottom Molding

Trim or border on the bottom edge of a billboard.


Large billboards usually 14 feet x 48 feet, 10 feet, 6 inches x 36 feet, or 20 feet, 60 feet. When the method of reproduction is paint directly on the sign face, the bulletin is called a “paint” or “painted bulletin.”

Bundle of Rights Theory

Ownership concept of property viewed as to a bundle of separate rights of the property owner. Might include the right to occupy, use, lease, encumber, or sell real estate.


Leasing of sign space. A common “buy” is the leasing by an advertiser of a group of sign faces for a period of months.


Advertiser that leases the sign faces.

Buyer’s Guide to Outdoor Advertising

Official advertising rate and panel allotment source for 30-Sheet Posters and Bulletins. Published by CMR (Competitive Media Reports) under the auspices of the OAAA (Outdoor Advertising Association of America), Issued twice a year.

Back (rear) Projection

is a technique in which video is projected from behind a translucent screen material, rather than in front of a screen, to make better use of available space, cast an unobstructed image, and prevent shadowing on the screen.

Back Channel

A pathway where data can be pushed by a player back to the network manager or server.

Back of House

A term commonly used in the hotel / hospitality industry which describes the employees (staff) that work for the property. This term also generically refers to employee communication to any type of business.

Back to back

The running of more than one ad with one immediately following the other.


Image or plain color displayed behind the elements on a digital signage screen.

Backlit Material

For use with backlit displays and backlit Mobile Billboard Trucks

Balun: A device that connects a balanced line, such as twisted pair (Cat5), to an unbalanced line, such as coaxial cable.


An amount, measured in bits/kilobits per second that is able to move through a network connection.

Bandwidth: In video applications, the range of available frequencies that can be encoded and decoded as well as the signal-carrying capacity in a video path; measured in Hertz (Hz) or bits or bytes per second (bps/Bps).

Banner Advertising

Promotional content formatted as a text crawl or graphic that displays horizontally at the bottom or top of a digital signage screen; can be content paid for by a sponsor or the signage operator’s own promotional content.


3D effect applied to text elements and graphics.

Bi-Directional Diagnostics

Two-way communication between a display and its controller. Bi-directional diagnostics assist in pre-maintenance, maintenance, and troubleshooting.


Large format advertising displays intended for viewing from extended distances, generally more than 50 feet. Billboard displays include, but not limited to: 30-sheet posters, 8-sheet posters, vinyl-wrapped posters, bulletins, wall murals and stadium/arena signage. Billboard: A sponsor announcement at the beginning or end of program content.


Bit is short for ‘binary digit.’ It is the most fundamental code for computing. It is measured in ones and zeros.


A pattern of colors that make up an image in an image file.

Black Back

Coated stock, featuring amazing color retention, brightness and a 100% opaque surface. This stock completely eliminates bleed through and is excellent for full white backgrounds or designs that would allow previously posted boards to show through.


Is the action of gaining a favored view on the part of consumers for a product, service, organization or experience. These actions include advertising, merchandising, demonstration, education (consumers, sales staff, etc.) profile through media, events, etc., co-branding, etc.


A technique for sending data, voice, and video traffic over long distances by transmitting high-frequency signals over coax, UTP, and fiber optic cables, or wireless.


A connection that allows for information to be sent from a server to multiple displays at one time.

Broadcast Server

A transmit machine for broadcast files intended to be sent to a digital signage network.


Netscape, IE, Opera and Firefox are examples of a browser program that is used for viewing files on the web.


A way to temporarily store a data streaming over the web ahead of its playback.


An embedded graphic icon or logo used to brand a digital place-based program


The largest standardized outdoor format, typically measuring 14′ x 48′ in overall size. Sold either as permanent displays or in rotary packages.

Business Marketing

The practice of individuals, or organizations, including commercial businesses, governments and institutions, facilitating the sale of their products or services to other companies or organizations that in turn resell them, use them as components in products or services they offer, or use them to support their operations. Also known as industrial marketing, business marketing is also called business-to-business marketing, or B2B marketing, for short. Digital Signage serves as an excellent low cost medium for marketing to existing employees or customers.

Business Model (see also Ad model)

The costs of digital signage networks are met in different ways. An “Ad Model” creates profit through ad display and sponsorship revenues, coupon redemption commissions and marketing intelligence sales. The costs in a “Venue Model” are considered by the display location provider (typically) as a cost of business or investment toward patron marketing, up-selling, or improving a wait, service or shopping experience. It is common to blend the two business models allowing the benefits of a Venue model with investment offset through sponsorship or advertising. Live private program display and distance learning provide benefit in the both the Ad and Venue Models.


The basic unit of measurement for storage on a computer. It stands for ‘binary term.’ It is generally used to store a typed number or letter.

Back Channel

A data communication from which a media player exchanges information with a network management server. The back channel communications include content and playlist download, playback and system log upload, remote system control, etc.


A graphic image, animation or plain color used as the basis for a screen page on which elements are placed.


The amount of data that is able to be sent over a network, measured in Kilobytes and Megabytes per second (Kbps and Mbps). Modern low bandwidth communications include dialup modems and ISDN, ranging from 56Kbps to 128Kbps, but actual downloading times are closer to 1/10th of this speed. High-speed cable modems, DSL, T-1, FIO, 3G data service and Satellite are much faster, by factors of as little as 10 or even higher than 100.

Baud Rate

A measure of the speed of serial communication using a modem or null-modem, roughly equivalent to bits per second.


A three-dimensional effect that can be applied to text elements and clips in the application.


A type of font or graphics file that is stored in the form of a pattern of memory bits, each of which specifies the color of a pixel of the stored image. Bitmap file formats include BMP, PCX, PCD, JPG, TIFF, GIF, and IFF.


Video compression sampling rate. For digital signage application, 3 to 5 megabit bitrate is a good balance for video file size and video display quality.

Blue-Ray Disc

An optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the standard DVD format. Its main uses are for storing high-definition video, PlayStation 3 games, and other data, with up to 25 GB per single layered, and 50 GB per dual layered disc. The disc has the same physical dimensions as standard DVDs and CDs.


BMP is a bitmap file format widely used in Windows PCs that stands for Basic Multilingual Plane.


Beats per minute, the unit of measure that defines the tempo of music.


High bandwidth, fast speed Internet connection.


A type of connection in which a host system sends information to many media players all at once, rather than making a separate connection to each player one at a time.


Software for viewing web sites, HTML files, and related content, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox.


T he basic unit of computer storage, comprising eight bits. Typically, a byte can store one character of text, or one pixel.



The data lines run to connect computer, display, or power sources.

Call Center

A business service center staffed by telemarketing, telesales, or technical support staff.

Captive Audience Networks

A captive audience network is a digital advertising media network installed where your target audience is assured to remain in place for a period of time. Typical captive audience networks are installed in waiting rooms, supermarket queues, gas station pumps, banks, and wherever people gather and wait.


A data and communications cable adopted by the Telecommunications Industry Association and ISO (International Standards Organization). Category 5 or 6 uses all four pairs of wires to both send and receive. While CAT5 is adequate to run 10 Megabit Ethernet, CAT6 cable is capable of running Gigabit Ethernet.


See compact disc.


(Compact Disc Read Only Memory) A compact disc containing up to 650 megabytes of information that can be read only from a CD-ROM drive. Audio CDs can be played on both CD players and many CD-ROM drives, but a CD-ROM cannot be used on a CD player.

CD-ROM drive

A device that uses laser optics to read software and file information from a compact disc.


A script that has been published in such a way that when its contents change, the updated material is forwarded to machines running the viewer that have subscribed to the channel.

Character generator

A device for creating text on video. Character generators (CG) are often used to make information channels and electronic bulletin boards for TV and Cable and more recently have been adapted to digital signage systems.

Clear QAM

Unscrambled digital cable TV channel.

Closed circuit television

Traditionally, a private television network broadcasted internally via coax (RG59 or RG6) cable network within an organization. Also known as CCTV.


A software module responsible for compressing and/or decompressing an encoded media format such as AVI digital video.

Color Depth

The number of possible colors in a graphic image, stored as a given number of bits per pixel. A color depth of 8 bits provides 256 colors; 16 bits (also known as “High Color”) provides about 65,000 colors; 24 bits (also known as “True Color”) provides about 16,000,000 colors.

Color Palette

A set of colors that make up an image or animation, or the set of colors available to be applied to elements on a page.

Compact Disc

A high-fidelity digital audio recording medium. A standard CD is 12 centimeters (approximately 5 inches) in diameter, with an identifying label on one side.

Composite Video

A standard analog video signal containing color, brightness, and sync information. Composite video usually interconnects using RCA-style connectors.


The process of condensing a computer file, such as graphic, video, or animation, using special hardware, software, or both so that it requires less storage space.

Confirmed Broadcasting

Broadcasting in which there is a back channel through which media players can respond to transmissions with confirmation or error messages. See also back channel.


Any media files that are played back for communication purposes, including graphic files, sound files, video files, XML/RSS data files and script files.

Content Distribution Server

A computer server or device that stores the contents that are distributed to the media player in a digital sign network.


(Cost-Per-Thousand) the cost to generate 1,000 impressions.

Crawling Text

Moving text usually at the bottom of a digital signage screen that displays short headlines, RSS feeds, or other messages which can be read quickly. Also known as text “ticker”.

To cover up portions of a graphic image that are not needed by adjusting its top, bottom, and side borders.


(Cathode Ray Tube) CRTs are the glass vacuum picture tubes inside televisions and computer monitors. They are based on the emission of a magnetically targeted stream of electrons from the back of the picture tube on to phosphors located on at the front. The electron hitting the phosphors causes the emission of light with vibrancy still unrivalled by competing technologies, such as gas plasma displays and liquid crystal displays. The big draw-back of CRTs is their large depth of the glass picture tube required for the projection of the stream of electrons. The CRT is being replaced by the modern plasma, LCD and LED screens.

“C” Print

Glossy four-color print or high quality color copy, usually made from a transparency. Often used as guide artwork for Bulletin painters to follow for color and composition of the illustration.

C-Store Display

Small advertising display, often 67 inches by 46 inches or smaller, usually posted at the entrance to a convenience store.


Incandescent lighting fixtures attached to an outdoor advertising structure.

Cantilever Construction -Type of sign construction used to prevent various types of trespassing, where the sign face is set off from the supporting beams.

Car Cards

Advertising displays of various sizes posted in buses, subways and commuter trains.

Channel Letters

Sheet metal letters with recessed surfaces designed to accommodate incandescent bulbs or luminous tubing.

Charting a Showing

Process of selecting proposed or actual display locations on a map of the streets and highways of a market.


Tour of each billboard in a showing to verify that the advertising displays meet contract specifications. (See “ride the boards”). Also, inspection of structures and analysis of maintenance.

City Panels

Framed Posters on the street side of phone booth kiosks, providing visibility to vehicles and pedestrians.


Number of potential viewers of a billboard face. Billboard circulation is based on traffic volume, including automotive, pedestrian, and mass transportation.

Coat Out

Process of covering a painted advertising message with white or gray paint before new copy is displayed.

Commercial or “On-Premise” Sign

Any sign that advertises a product, service, entertainment, or commodity sold or offered at the same site. Usually referred to as a business sign. Such signs are not considered billboards, or out-of-home media.

Competitive Plants

Two or more billboard plants operating in the same market.

Computer Printing/Painting

Method of applying design to flexible vinyl via computer controlled printer that increases faithful reproduction.

Conforming Sign

Billboard legally erected in accordance with the federal, state and local laws in effect at the present time.

Cooperative Advertising

Sharing of advertising costs between a manufacturer and distributor or dealer/retailer of a product or service.


Pictorial design, background, word copy, and message to be displayed.

Cost Approach

An appraisal approach in which replacement cost or reproduction cost is the estimate of value.

Cost Per Thousand (CPM)

Cost of reaching one thousand potential viewers of a billboard panel. The formula for calculation is the monthly cost of the face divided by the circulation measured in thousands of viewers.

Cost Per Rating Point (CPP)

Cost of exposing a message to achieve one rating point, or 1% of the market population.

Counting Station

Defined point on a street where vehicles and/or pedestrians are recorded to determine circulation. Out-of-home media, federal, state and local governments use counting stations.


Area or boundaries to be exposed to an advertising campaign; one or more counties; a particular group or consumer segment; that percentage of a market population that has a reasonable opportunity to see the advertising; reach of particular billboards included in an advertising campaign.


Billboard visible across traffic lanes on the opposite side of the roadway.

Customized Rotation

Advertisements moved to new sign locations in a market on specific dates to meet a client’s advertising needs.

Custom-Made Posters

Hand-painted, lithographed, or screen-printed posters normally made in small quantities. Primarily used by local business in smaller markets.


Special productions or additions to the face of a sign that are raised or extend beyond the border of the standardized area. Intended to command greater attention to the message. Cutouts can include letters or objects used to achieve a three dimensional appearance. (Also called extensions or embellishments).


The cable lines used to connect display to computer, power, and internet sources.


A term for computer memory that stores web pages on a temporary basis so it can be more quickly accessed the next time it is visited.


Measuring and adjusting both the color and the intensity of individual pixels to ensure image consistency across the entire display.


The planning and execution of a marketing plan, including advertising schedules, promotions, events and other media.

Cancellation Period

A specified period of time when a contract can be terminated.

Cancellation Policy

The terms under which an advertiser can cancel an ad unit or units scheduled that has already been purchased and scheduled, including the required amount of advance notice and any applicable financial penalty or consequence for early termination.

Candela (cd)

(can dell’ ah) A measurement of directional light intensity from a point source.

Captive Audience Network: strategically placed digital signage that targets viewers whose activities force them to be in one place, often for a lengthy period of time.

Captive Audience Networks

A digital out-of-home media network installed where a captive audience is stationed and can be targeted for demographic advertising.


An audience confined to an area in which consumers have a strong likelihood of being exposed to the messaging.

Card Emulation

The NFC device behaves exactly like a contactless card and can be used in transport fare payment systems based on MiFare, Calypso or Felica as well as open banking payment systems based on Visa pay Wave, MasterCard Pay Pass or American Express Pay


A communications cable used and standardized by the telecom industry. Category 5 uses all four pairs of wires to send and receive data. Cat5e operates at up to 350MHz.

Category 5 cables: Is a twisted pair cable for carrying signals. This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet. It is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video.

CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory)

A compact disc containing up to 650 megabytes of information that can be read only on a CD ROM drive.

CD-ROM Drive

A laser optic device used for reading files and software contained on a compact disc.


Is a type of short-wave analog or digital telecommunication in which a subscriber has a wireless connection from a mobile device to a relatively nearby transmitter. The transmitter’s span of coverage is called a cell. Generally, cellular telephone service is available in urban areas and along major highways. As the cellular telephone user moves from one cell or area of coverage to another, the telephone is effectively passed on to the local cell transmitter.

Center-to-Center Spacing

The distance between the center point of one pixel and the center of an adjacent pixel on a video or message center display. Also know as pitch.


A set of digital signage content that plays for a group of screens. Channel: A specific, prescribed, or official course or means of communication. In regards to digital place-based, this refers to a particular network of venues.

Character Height

Height of the largest letter that can be displayed on a message center; height of a seven-pixel high character according to center-to-center spacing (e.g., 3.0″ center-to-center spacing x 7 pixels = 21″ character height).


The process of selecting and scheduling individual unit locations to maximize outdoor advertising objectives.


A measurement of traffic volume in a market.


A grouping of LEDs that act as a single pixel.


A compressing software widget used to compress and decompress files, including digital video, in various compression formats. Codec: A device or software that compresses and decompresses (or codes and decodes) data to preserve disk space; certain codecs convert and store analog video signals in a compressed digital file format.

Color Accuracy

Conformity or exactness of color match, clarity and accuracy within the individual primary color groups of red, green and blue.

Color Shift

The angle of viewing off axis where the slightest change in pixel coloration occurs.

Color Temperature

The degree of hotness or coolness of a color, measured in degrees Kelvin. If a video display is said to have a color temperature of 7,000° Kelvin, for example, the whites have the same shade as a piece of pure carbon heated to that temperature. Low color temperatures have a shift toward red, and high color temperatures have a shift toward blue. The standard white for NTSC in the United States is 6,500° Kelvin.

Compliance: Fulfilling the terms and requirement of a buy; delivering what is due.

Component Video

An analog video signal in which the luminance and chrominance is carried on three wires. Also known as Y-Pb-Pr in which Y carries the luminance, Pb carries the difference between blue and luminance, and Pr carries the difference between red and luminance. Provides better quality than Composite Video does.

Composite Video

A video output signal is one cable that contains color, brightness and synchronization information. Composite video an analog video signal containing brightness, color, and sync pulse information. Referred to also as CVBS (Color, Video, Blank and Sync), it is used for NTSC, PAL, or SECAM video formats.


A method for making data smaller so a computer can store more information. It also makes file transfer much faster.


The technical specification to be used in a digital signage project or application. This could include RAM, processor speed, type of video, and hard drive space.


Written verification that the order has been received and will clear.


Parameters used for naming and saving files used on different players.


Files, static and dynamic, that are played back on a digital signage media player device. Content: Media, clips, text, video and audio that is presented by display and audio devices by a digital signage system.

Content Distribution (or Management) Server

A server or computer used to store content for distribution to digital signage.

Content File

A folder on a player where the content resides and is stored awaiting scheduled playback.

Content management software undefined for digital signage, it’s a collaborative application used to import and organize graphics, electronic documents, HTML, audio, and other media from various sources into an integrated multimedia presentation.


The elimination of gaps in a media schedule by maximizing the duration of a campaign, ideally 52 weeks.

Contrast Ratio

Ratio between the brightness or intensity measurement taken when the screen is displaying a blank video signal and a full, white video signal. This ratio determines the readability of the display so as to measure “depth” of an image or as a measure of how well the image can be seen in high ambient light. Contrast ratio: is a measure of a video display’s luminosity specifying the difference between the blackest of blacks and the whitest of whites.

Control Equipment Enclosure

The environmentally controlled area within a standard walk-in or slim line display cabinet that safely contains electronic operating and computer equipment.


Computer or computer-type device used to program and operate digital displays.


Is the integration of the three primary communications channels (data, voice, and video) into one using the same network appliances, one standard network infrastructure, and the same administration. This high-bandwidth, combined-transmission method is known as Internet Protocol, or IP.


A file containing small bits of information, sent from a web server to a browsing computer. Cookies allow tracking and reorganization eliminating the need for a redownload of information.


The sharing of advertising costs between a manufacturer and distributor or dealer.

Copy Area

The complete advertising message to be displayed on an advertising structure (including words and illustrations). The viewing area on an outdoor unit.


Artwork displayed on an outdoor unit.

Cost per point

In print and broadcast media, cost of reaching one percent (one rating point) of the households of a targeted demographic segment or geographical area. Also called cost per gross rating point (CPGRP).

Coverage area

Geographic area covered by network installations.


The boundaries of a market, the percentage of a county or counties exposed to an outdoor advertising campaign or the reach of the panels purchased.


Cost Per Thousand

The cost of reaching one thousand advertising exposure opportunities in a market. CPM: is an acronym for cost per thousand, it’s a metric and cost modeling unit used to estimate the effectiveness of digital signage advertising. This advertising model describes the amount paid for every 1000 times an ad is viewed and an impression is recorded.


Cost per Gross Ratings Point

The cost of advertising exposure opportunities that equal one gross rating point in a market or one percent of the population. CPP (Cost-Per-Point): The cost to buy one rating point, or one percent of the population in a defined geography or universe.

CPS (cost per screen)

Refers to the total cost of advertising distributed over the network on a per screen basis. It is different that CPM but some advertisers prefer it

Creative Brief

Detailed marketing objectives that pertain to the design of an outdoor campaign.


To remove unneeded portions of a graphic image by adjusting the top, bottom, or side borders.

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)

A glass vacuum picture tube that can be found inside a tube television and computer monitors. They utilize a magnetically targeted stream of electrons to display an image.

C-Store Display

Point-of-purchase displays, typically the same format as transit shelter posters that are positioned at the entrance of convenience stores.


A keyboard shortcut key that allows for multiple selections when using a mouse.


(Also see overlay, snipe).

Daily Effective Circulation (DEC)

Average number of people age 18 and older that are exposed each day to a sign or group of signs. (See circulation).


Trade name for certain inks or lacquers that become fluorescent when activated by ultraviolet rays of sunlight or special illumination.

Demographic Profiles

Audience categories based on various characteristics such as age, sex, income, and education.


Artwork and text that constitute an advertisement.


Backlit display located in airports, bus terminals and sports stadiums/arenas.

Designated Market Area (DMA)

Specifically defined geographical area used by A. C. Nielsen market researchers to identify TV stations that best reach the population of an area and attract the most viewers. A DMA consists of all ZIP Codes whose largest viewing share is given to a station of that same market area. Non-overlapping DMAs cover the entire continental United States, Hawaii and parts of Alaska.

Direct Sales Comparison Approach

(See sales comparison approach).

Directional Signs

Billboards showing locations and directions to nearby restaurants, lodging, local attractions, real estate developments, etc.


In the billboard industry, an advertising message on the face of a sign. Also may refer to the entire structure.

Display Period

Duration of time when outdoor advertising copy is on the face of a sign for viewing.


Physical location of the individual advertising structures within a market relative to exposure potential. Also refers to a map with specific sign locations marked to show a pattern of market coverage.

District Showing

Advertisement on a group of signs in one segment of a market, not displayed throughout the market.


Designated Market Area: a rigidly defined geographical area used by A.C. Nielsen to identify TV stations that best reach an area and attract the most viewers.

Double Deck

Two or more faces, one set above the other.

Dye Transfer

Opaque, high-fidelity color print made from artwork. Permits wide range of color correction during laboratory processing.

Daily Impressions

Also called DEC. The estimated number of persons passing an outdoor location on an average day.


Numbers, text, sounds, or images that, after it is transcribed into bits, are processed by a computer.


A collection of data which collectively comprise an information network.


The broadcast of digital data information over a network of receivers and players. An alternative to traditional broadcasting.


Refers to the partial segment of a medium’s overall operating hours, during which programming and/or advertising is customized to appeal to a particular demographic or target audience.


Daily Effective Circulation

The average number of persons passing and potentially exposed to an advertising display for either 12 hours (non illuminated

6:00am to 6:00pm) or 18 hours (illuminated

6:00am to 12:00 midnight).


A process of restoring information to its original uncompressed format after it has already been compressed.


The selection that is shown when a user does not specify anything.


A desire for a product or service. A buying decision is based on brand identity and the impression based on previous purchases and experience of use.

Demographic Profiles

Audience breakdowns based on various characteristics such as age, sex, income and education.

Digital Advertising Networks

Digital networks integrating targeted entertainment and/or information program content with advertising narrowcast through digital networks and/or screens in place based venues such as big box and small retail, transit, malls, grocery, health clubs, medical offices, gas stations, office buildings, hotels and other out of home consumer venues.

Digital Billboards & Displays

Communicate advertising-only messages through screens equipped with LED (Light emitting diode) or LCD (Liquid crystal display) technology, often changing at predetermined times, or through motion recognition technology, to showcase multiple brands.

Digital Media

Video, sound, pictures, and text that is downloaded or streamed over a WAN or LAN.

Digital Media Platform

The infrastructure (hardware, software, connectivity and various resources) that is purposefully designed to host, support and broadcast various media file types with the objective to entertain, inform, and educate a targeted audience. Interactive layers and peripheral devices can be added atop this base to create an Interactive Media Platform.

Digital Out-of-Home

Refers to signage that is displayed in public spaces by means of projector, LCD, Plasma screen, Electronic billboard, Isle-talkers, etc. Multimedia content is usually displayed using a computer, also referred to as a digital engine or media player. You will find digital signage in most public spaces like airports, outdoor concert venues, bars, restaurants, cafes, college campuses, convention centers, stock markets, call centers, trains, busses, taxis, and retail environments.

Digital Out-of-Home: Refers to signage that is displayed in public spaces by means of projector, LCD, Plasma screen, Electronic billboard, Isle-talkers, etc. Multimedia content is usually displayed using a computer, also referred to as a digital engine or media player.

Digital Place-Based Network

Networks integrating targeted entertainment and/or information program content with advertising narrowcast through digital networks and/or screens in place based venues such as big box and small retail, transit, malls, grocery, health clubs medical offices, gas stations, office buildings, hotels and other out of home consumer venues.

Digital Sign

A singular reference to a screen that is running digital signage. Digital signs are found in company break areas to speak to the employees or public spaces like airports, outdoor concert venues, bars, restaurants, cafes, college campuses, convention centers, stock markets, call centers, trains, busses, taxis, and retail environments. Digital Sign: a singular reference to a screen that is running digital signage content and typically replaces static billboards and posters.

Digital Signage

Refers to signage that is displayed in public spaces by means of projector, LCD, Plasma screen, Electronic billboard, Isle-talkers, etc. Multimedia content is usually displayed using a computer, also referred to as a digital engine or media player. You will find digital signage in most public spaces like airports, outdoor concert venues, bars, restaurants, cafes, college campuses, convention centers, stock markets, call centers, trains, busses, taxis, and retail environments.

Digital Signage Network

The medium that digital signage content travels between the creation of the content, the displaying of the content on the screen, status information that proves that the content was actually displayed and reporting of how the network is functioning at any given time of the day.

Digital Signage Player

A Digital Signage Player is the device at customer sites where Digital Signage Software accesses and displays digital signage information that it “receives” from the controlling server. Digital Signage Players automatically communicate with a primary server and in some cases; roll over to backup servers in the event of an interruption. The player may further assure consistency and uninterrupted signage presentation by preloading pages while others are being displayed.

Digital Signage Software

Software that is standalone or Internet based that drives a digital signage system and digital sign.

Digital Signage Solutions

A complete system with software, hardware, installation, training and sometimes even including content.

Digital Signage

A network of digital displays that is centrally managed and addressable for targeted information, entertainment, merchandising and advertising. (Synonyms): Dynamic Signage, Digital Signs, Electronic Signage, Digital Media Advertising, Digital Signage Network, In-store TV Network, Captive Audience Network, Narrowcasting Network, Out-of-home Media Network, Digital Media Network, Advertising Network, etc.

Digital Video

A video that has been placed in digitized format that is then able to be controlled by a PC.


Changing the brightness of a display, or the capability of increasing or decreasing the overall display intensity. The brightness level should be highest during the day to compete with daylight, and lower at night.


Microsoft’s graphic software used for display of various animation type formats.


Graphic playback software developed by Microsoft for playback in PC environments of some scripts.


When an invoice and the original order for an advertisement do not match.

Display Calibration

Is the process of using a display’s controls to calibrate the on screen image so that it matches the original source content, as its creator designed it. This allows the calibrated display to accurately reproduce the video signals from any source device, be it a computer, digital signage player, cable/satellite box, or Blu-Ray player.

Display Mount

Refers to a device, bracket, fixture, or stand that provides a place for a display to be attached to on the wall, ceiling, or floor. It provides a stable and secure manner for the display to be placed in a desired location.

Display Period

The interval of exposure when an outdoor advertising campaign is viewed.


A mode of message transition on an LED display accomplished by varying the light intensity or pattern, where the first message gradually appears to dissipate and lose legibility simultaneously with the gradual appearance and legibility of the second message. Dissolve

a transition that fades between two signage pages.


The strategic placement of outdoor units across a market.


A process which makes images appear smoother when resizing them by adding additional colors into the mix.


A geographic area defined by Nielsen Media Research as a group of counties that make up a particular TV market, in which the preponderance of TV viewing is from TV stations located in the particular market.


The URL or web address of a internet web site.


The transfer or install of software from one computer to another. Often done over the internet.

DPAA (Digital Place-based Advertising Association)

The media trade association that is a resource for information on digital place-based advertising, standards and metrics.

DPI (dots per inch) Resolution

Unit of measurement used to describe the printing resolution of an output device, or the printed resolution of images, based on the number of separate ink droplets represented either horizontally or vertically in one inch. Also correlates to pixels per inch and samples per inch. A higher dpi number infers greater color clarity, better visibility and a crisper image.

DSF (Digital Signage Federation)

A not for profit organization supporting and promoting the common business interests of the world-wide digital signage industry, the interactive technologies industry, and the digital out-of-home network industry.


The amount of time a customer remains in a venue, or a specific area within the venue. Dwell-time is an important variable in determining display placement, advertisement size (seconds), content loop duration, advertising-to-content ratio, and advertisement cost. One of the primary objectives of Digital Signage is to increase dwell-time, and therefore often forms part of the Return on Investment (ROI) metrics and cost justification value proposition.

Dynamic Signage

Refers to signage that is displayed in public spaces by means of projector, LCD, Plasma screen, Electronic billboard, Isle-talkers, etc. Multimedia content is usually displayed using a computer, also referred to as a digital engine or media player. You will find digital signage in most public spaces like airports, outdoor concert venues, bars, restaurants, cafes, college campuses, convention centers, stock markets, call centers, trains, busses, taxis, and retail environments.


The collection of data on accounts, players, schedules, etc. that collectively define an information network installation and its settings.

Data Casting

Broadcast of digital information over networks to receivers and players. Data casting is sometimes used as an alternative to traditional video broadcasting, because the receivers and player units can have the “intelligence” to customize their playback programming for the location and intended audience. The systems of receivers set up to receive messages from a particular data cast are known as Data casting Networks, which are a venue for advertisers.


Refers to a content programming schedule that allows for displaying content during specific hours of the day on specific days of week.


A value or option that system uses if you do not specify anything.



To the Internet that involves the computer using a modem to dial the phone number for another computer or ISP that provides the Internet access. See also ISP.

Digital TV

The sending and receiving of moving images and sound by discrete (digital) signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV.

Digital Dynamic Signage (Signs)

Digital dynamic signage is a term used to describe the growing trend where flat panel devices such as plasma, LCD, and LED displays are used as moving posters, electronic bulletin boards, and the like.

Digital In-Store Merchandising

Digital in-store merchandising refers the use of digital audio/visual equipment and digital tags such as RFID in retail environments to help compete for consumer attention. Increasingly, a flat panel display device, such as plasma screens, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), and LED (light emitting diodes) signs are being used to fill all available merchandising “real estate”.

Digital Media

Media in digital format such as MPEG, AVI, QuickTime, JPEG, Bitmap.

Digital media network

The term digital media network can refer to anything from multiple websites, to multiple television stations being centrally owned and operated. With the reduction in cost of custom controllable player devices, a new breed of digital media network is emerging, known under many different terms. The industry appears to be settling on the term digital signage to describe these new digital media networks, where custom images are digitally delivered to sign-like devices located throughout retail environments, or the enterprise.

Digital Media Networks

Digital Media Networks consist of output devices such as televisions, computer monitors, plasma display panels, LED and liquid crystal displays that are networked together and remotely controlled a network operator. A digital media network may be used for advertising, merchandising, delivering news or emergency information, or corporate and community events

- depending on the venue. Such networks are appearing in venues such as retail outlets, shopping malls, franchises, office buildings, outdoor billboards, stadiums and sporting arenas.

Digital Media Platform

The infrastructure (hardware, software, connectivity and various resources) that is purposefully designed to host, support and broadcast various media file types with the objective to entertain, inform, and educate a targeted audience. Interactive layers and peripheral devices can be added atop this base to create an interactive media platform.

Digital Multimedia Broadcast

The process of broadcasting multimedia over a broadcasting antenna, satellite or Internet, to be tuned in by multimedia receivers, or players, capable of playing back the multimedia program. Through a process called multicast, a single broadcast can send programming to thousands of receivers, which can play back the content individualized to the location. This is one of the advantages of multimedia broadcasting over traditional video broadcasting.

Digital Out Of Home (DOOH)

See out-of home media network.

Digital Signage (Signs)

The combination of a display device, computer (aka media player) and application specific software used to present information, advertising and other messages. Digital signs (such as LCD, LED, plasma displays, or projected images) can be found in public and private environments, such as retail stores and corporate buildings.

Digital Signage Network

A network of digital signage displays that are programmed and controlled remotely by the operators. The advantages of digital signage network include the rapid ability to update content in real-time, and the ability to deliver specific messages to specific audiences in specific locations at a specific time.

Digital Signage Networks

A grouping and/or network of digital signage.

Digital video

A video that has been digitally encoded so that it can be transferred and controlled from a PC and displayed directly on a computer monitor.

Direct Show

A media-streaming architecture for Microsoft Windows. Using DirectShow, your applications can perform high-quality video and audio playback or capture. DirectShow is formally called ActiveMovie.


A collection of application programming interfaces (APIs) for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft Windows platforms.

Display Device

A CRT, flat-panel LCD, plasma, projector or other device that is the end-point of a digital signage system.


An image-processing technique that makes a digitized or rendered image appear smoother and more natural by simulating additional colors.


Dots per square inch.

Draw Object

A box, oval, line, or arrow element added to a screen page using a Design Draw menu.

Drawing Program

An application, often called a structured or vector drawing program, used to create and manipulate two-dimensional images and shapes as independent objects, as opposed to bitmap images.

Drop-Down Icon

A toolbar icon with the symbol that displays a list of options; choosing one of the options enables you to access other functions or menus.


The amount of time a customer remains in a venue, or a specific area within the venue. Dwell-time is an important variable in determining display placement, advertisement size (seconds), content loop duration, advertising-to-content ratio, and advertisement cost. One of the primary objectives of Digital Signage is to increase dwell-time, and therefore often forms part of the Return on Investment (ROI) metrics and cost justification value proposition.

Dynamic Digital Signage

See digital signage.

Dynamic Signage

See digital signage.

Dynamic Signs

See digital signage.

Dynamic visual messaging

The process of using animated graphic design to communicate to target audiences through signs and public displays.


Electronic billboards

Billboards that can be updated electronically. This term covers a wide array of products. Sometimes it is used to refer to television channels run by computers, and sometimes it refers to very large screen video displays actually being used outdoors as billboards. Both are growing trends in advertising.

Electronic kiosks

Terminals that disseminate information and services to the public through touch-screens and video displays. Electronic kiosks come in all shapes and sizes. They are often built by display companies and customized to individual needs by multimedia developers and value added resellers. They often incorporate card readers, coupon printers, and other devices specific to their application. The use of electronic kiosks as Internet Access Terminals is a growing trend.

Electronic Signage

See digital signage

Emergency Alert Systems

Systems allowing for the rapid dissemination of late-breaking news and information which may or may not be connected to the FCC broadcast requirement known as EAS. EAS is an acronym for the federally mandated Emergency Alert System used by all broadcasters in the United States.

Emergency Notification Systems

See emergency alert systems

Emergency Response Networks

See emergency alert systems


A piece of equipment which houses the components, such as a monitor or display, and in some cases a computing device and/or other option peripherals devices such as printers, keyboards, etc.


(Enterprise Resource Planning)

Business software for running every aspect of a company including managing orders, inventory, accounting, and logistics. Well known ERP software providers include BAAN, Oracle, PeopleSoft and SAP.


An action in a script; virtually everything that happens in a script is an event, including text, sounds, wipes, animations, etc.


A mathematical or logical statement that a software program can evaluate to arrive at a variable value or TRUE/FALSE condition.

Expression-Based Media & Social Media Applications

Invites people to engage with beneficial and entertaining content that encourages users to HAVE FUN. It also encourages people to share information and talk to each other in a user-controlled media environment.


See file-type extension.


Degree of value delivered for an advertiser relative to the space cost. Usually expressed as either CPM (cost per thousand) or CPP (cost per gross rating point).

Effective Circulation

(See daily effective circulation).

Effective Gross Income (EGI)

Actual collected revenue.

Effective Gross Income Multiplier (EGIM)

Ratio of the sales price of an asset to its effective gross income. Frequently applied to billboards.


(see above).

Eight-Sheet Panel

A small Poster quoted as 6 feet by 12 feet (actually 5 feet by 11 feet), usually placed for exposure to pedestrians as well as vehicles. Found predominately in urban areas for neighborhood coverage. (See Junior Poster).


(See cutouts).

End Panel

Advertising structure closest to the approaching lane of traffic when more than one structure is built in the same facing.


Reasonable opportunity for advertising to be seen and read.


Limited access roadways with a speed limit of 55 mph or more. Parking is prohibited.

Extended Service

Method of adjusting a loss of service to an advertiser by exposing the message beyond the period specified in the contract.


Method of extending the copy area outside of the billboard frame normally by use of cutouts.

Extra Service

Method of adjusting for loss of service to an advertiser by posting additional panels beyond the number specified in the contract. In the case of Bulletins, a mutually agreed upon substitute location may be offered.

Edge to Edge Illumination

A uniform pattern of distributing lights on a Digital Display unit allowing better luminosity and an evenly lit image across the width and height of the board.


The degree of value delivered to an audience relative to its space cost. Usually expressed as either CPM (cost per thousand) or CPP (cost per gross rating point).

Electronic Billboard

Billboards that can be updated remotely via the internet.

Electronic Signage

Digital Media including stills, dynamic video, and interactivity that is used to replace static signage.

Embedded Player

A flash player that is embedded within a web browser to display media clips.


Letters, figures, mechanical devices or lighting that is attached to the face of an outdoor unit to create a special effect.

Emerging Media

Recently developed or introduced outdoor formats.

Employee Communications

A business management method for employers to engage employees (sometimes referred to as associates) and to build employee morale, perforance and confidence in the organization. An “engaged employee” is one who is fully involved in, and enthusiastic about, his or her work, and thus will act in a way that furthers their organization’s interests. In addition to traditional communication mediums such as newsletters and bulletin boards, digital signage serves as a responsive way to gain a consistent message to all employees throughout any sized organization.


Equipment used to house digital signage hardware including displays, media players, and associated mounts and wiring systems.


A change or transfer of media file types between multiple formats.

Engaged Employee

an employee or associate who is paid by an organization who is fully involved in, and enthusiastic about, his or her work, and thus will act in a way that furthers their organization’s interests.


the degrees to which consumers focus or pay attention to a particular program or message. The level of engagement can be a function of the message’s relevancy to the consumer, the degree of interactivity of the medium, the nature of the consumer exposure (e.g., stationary vs. in-movement impressions, captive vs. non-captive audience, etc.) and the breadth of competing messaging.

Environmentally Controlled

Billboard structures that use electronic or computerized equipment are often fitted with equipment such as air-conditioning or environmental seals that can eliminate water and wind intrusion, and lengthen the life of the internal equipment.


Estimated Time of Arrival


A local-area network (LAN) architecture uses a bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps. A newer version of Ethernet, called 100Base-T (or Fast Ethernet), supports data transfer rates of 100 Mbps. And the newest version, Gigabit Ethernet supports data rates of 1 gigabit (1,000 megabits) per second.

Expected Lifetime

Anticipated length of use for an LED. The expected lifetime of an LED is measured at the point when the sign has degraded to 50 percent of its original intensity. LEDs have a typical expected life of 50,000 to 100,000 hours (as specified by the manufacturer).


The reasonable opportunities for advertising to be seen and read. Exposure: A consumer’s experience with an advertising medium or message.

Expression-based Media

Invites people to engage with beneficial and entertaining content that forces users to HAVE FUN. It also encourages people to share information and talk to each other in a user-controlled media environment.


Letters that follow the name of a file. These letter abbreviations indicate the format the file is in and how it can be viewed. Extension an area of copy made as a cut out that falls outside the basic restraints of a bulletin or premiere panel face.

Eye Tracking

Intelligent camera sensor technology that detects the viewing of a screen by a person; reflective light is used to determine when the person’s eyes turn in the direction of the screen; in some cases, the camera can recognize the gender and age range of the person.


A new measurement for traditional Outdoor which reflects the probability that a person notices a billboard, and therefore, the advertising on it.



Surface of a sign that carries the advertising message. One billboard structure may have more than one face.


Direction that a panel is exposed to display advertising copy.

Fair Market Value

The most likely price in terms of cash, at which property would change hands between a willing buyer and willing seller when neither is compelled to act, both are reasonable well informed, and each is acting in his or her own perceived best interest. Specific legal definitions should be checked for each jurisdiction.

Fee Simple Estate

Absolute ownership of real estate unencumbered by any other interest or estate, subject only to the limitations of the four powers of government.


Highway designated by the state and approved by the U.S. Secretary of Transportation as of June 1, 1991.

Fiber Optic Display

Innovative use of light-transmitting fibers to create changeable copy displays on a billboard.

Flagged or Flagging

Paper or vinyl that is torn, waving, or hanging from the face of a sign.


Panel on the same horizontal level as another panel, erected on one structure and facing the same direction.

Flexible Face

Single-sheet of flexible vinyl with advertising message printed on one side.


The length of time for an advertising campaign.


Approximate number of times and advertisement might be viewed by an individual in a given period of time. Usually measured over a 30-day period.

Fully-Wrapped Bus

Specially commissioned transit display in which the entire vehicle, including windows, is covered with the advertising design. Passengers have visibility out of the windows due to special material.


The surface area on an outdoor unit where advertising copy is displayed. A structure may have more than one face.


The cardinal direction that an outdoor unit faces. As an example, a north facing bulletin is viewed by vehicles traveling south.


A slow or gradual change in a setting like brightness or volume that takes place over a period of time. Fade a mode of message transition on an LED display accomplished by varying the light intensity, where the first message gradually reduces intensity to the point of not being legible and the subsequent message gradually increases intensity to the point of legibility.


Positive perceptions of a particular brand or product which have been influenced by messaging and/or experience.


Poster paper unattached or torn from a bulletin or poster panel face.


An animated vector graphic file. The player is offered by Adobe (previously Macromedia). Flash files do not require as much bandwidth as standard media. Flash: refers to Adobe® software that is used to manipulate vector and raster graphics, often for the purpose of adding animation to Web pages and multimedia presentations.

Flat Panel

A thin electronic display device that can be powered by digital signage for content distribution.

Flat Panel

Is a computer or television monitor that does not use cathode ray tube (CRT) technology, but commonly LCD or plasma technology. This allows the monitor to have a thin profile, light weight, small footprint and a flat screen, which is how the flat panel displays, gets its name.


The length of an advertising campaign, sometimes divided into distinct segments over the course of weeks. The advertising campaign period for a particular advertising spot or spots, expressed in days or weeks; also known as duration.


A type of file transition that brings in a file from outside the screen’s borders.

Foam Structure Embellishments

Custom designed and attached sign features created from lightweight construction foam that let signs meet community style guides for outdoor advertising or simply enhance the appearance of a display.

FPS (Frames Per Second)

The measured speed at which a video or animation is played.

Frame Effect

A visual effect on an LED display applied to a single frame to attract the attention of viewers.


A static display screen on an LED display, or a metal attachment around the edges of a poster face.

Frames per Second (fps)

Undefined the speed at which still images (frames) in a video or animation are played in succession by an imaging device; sometimes expressed as hertz (Hz).

Free Digital Signage

The ability to use a digital signage system for a time period for free. Strand Vision offers this type of free digital signage.

Frequency discounts

A frequency discount is a contract rate offering one of the best discounts for display ads. The best commitment is usually running a minimum size ad each and every week for a 52-week period. Some companies also have shorter periods such as 13 and 26-week contracts.

Frequency distribution

The percentage of respondents reached at each level of exposure to an advertising schedule.


The average number of times an individual has the opportunity to see an advertising message during a defined period of time. Frequency in outdoor advertising is typically measured over a four week period. Frequency: The average number of times a person is exposed to a message, program or network within a given period of time, often one or four weeks.

Front of House

Commonly used in the hospitality industry for digital signage screens used for marketing communication to guests and visitors of the property. Also is used generically for marketing to visitors and customers.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

A standard protocol for data transfer over the web.

FTP Server

A type of computer that can receive FTP link requests from a client computer.


A gradual change in a setting (such as volume) that takes place over a specified period of time. See also fade-in; fade-out.


A gradual increase in a setting (such as volume) that begins at a zero point and reaches a specified value in a certain length of time.


A gradual decrease in a setting (such as volume) that begins at a specified value and reaches zero in a certain length of time.


A named and saved collection of computer data, such as a script, background, sound effect, animation, or clip.

File Format

The structure of a file, which defines the way it is stored and used. Generally, a file-type extension to the file name identifies the format. For example, some common bitmap graphics file formats are BMP, GIF, TIF, PCX, and JPG. Common video formats are AVI, MOV, MPG and WMV. A common audio file format is WAV and MP3.

File Name

A unique name used to identify a file.

File-type Extension

A suffix of a dot (.) followed by three characters, added to a file name to identify the type of file. It is not required by Windows naming standards, but files saved from a given software program are generally given an extension.

Flat Panel Signage

See digital signage


The display of an ad or other content message on the display.


The sequence of pages shown when you run a script. This can be different from the sequence of the pages in the script itself.


A type of wipe in which an image or text moves onto the screen from a position outside the screen borders.


A set of characters that has the same typeface, style (italic, bold, etc.) and size (10, 12, 24, etc.). See also font size.

Font Size

The height of a character together with the amount of space between lines of text. Size is measured in points for printed text and in pixels for text that is displayed on screen in the program. See also point.


See frames per second.


In an animation or video, one of the individual images displayed in sequence with others to create the illusion of movement.

Frames Per Second

The speed at which an animation, film or video is displayed. The frames per second setting for an animation should be at least 12 to create the illusion of movement. Full motion video is usually displayed at 24 to 30 frames per second.


(File Transfer Protocol) A standard protocol for transferring data over the Internet. To use FTP, FTP software must be set up on both sending and receiving ends of an FTP transmission, and the client (initiator) must have a username, password and a valid target address on the server.

FTP Server

A computer that can receive requests for an FTP link from a client machine, or the software on that machine that allows it to do so.



A video device that synchronizes two video signals and enables them to be mixed; for example, to overlay a subtitle produced on the computer onto live video.


See bitmap; file format.

Graphic Handle

A small, solid square placed along the edge of a clip, used to adjust the size or shape of the element.

Graphical User Interface

(GUI) A computer working environment, such as Windows, that represents files and operations visually, using icons, buttons, windows, and other imagery that you can manipulate with a mouse.


Images such as symbols, drawings, diagrams, photographs and clip art.


A collection of pages or elements represented by a single line in the Main menu.

Geo-Demographic Mapping

Method of providing specific audience characteristics as they relate to out-of-home locations, both geographically and demographically. Enables plant operators to specify locations that most efficiently reach target audiences, such as by age, sex, income, brand preference, or purchase behavior profiles.

Global Information System (GIS)/Global positioning System (GPS)

Location systems that can identify exact latitude and longitude of billboards using hand-held instruments that communicate with orbiting satellites.

Grand Format Printing

Large-scale printing process on flexible vinyl, paper, canvas, mesh and translucent materials for use on billboards. Also called Large Format.

Green” Design Technology

Design and engineering specifically geared toward reduced environmental waste, including reduced electrical consumption, reduced materials discard and reduced emissions.

Gross Income Multiplier (GIM)

Ratio of the sales price of an asset to its gross income. Frequently applied to billboards when the EGIM is intended.

Gross Rent Multiplier (GRM)

Ratio of the sales price of an asset to its gross rental income. Frequently applied to residential real estate.

Gross Rating Points (GRP)

System to standardize the measurement of media exposure. For billboards, one gross rating point represents traffic circulation equal to 1% of the population. Sometimes used interchangeably with Showing.

Gamma Correction

A process used with video images to correct brightness and internal micro-contrast within the image. Gamma correction allows a change of ratio between the brightest red component and weakest red.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)

A graphic file format where images are built with pixels with up to 256 colors. GIF files are compressed and can be downloaded quickly.


Non-text pictures and illustrations that can be viewed. Graphics can be vector or raster (bitmaps).

Gross Ad Costs

The gross rate is the full cost of advertising and is the amount that advertisers pay for their ads to be aired. This includes a commission to the advertising agency that is typically 15 percent of the cost of the total advertisement costs. The gross rate can be calculated by dividing the net rate of advertising by .85. For examples, $10 net costs can be divided by .85 to become $11.76 gross costs.

Gross Impressions

The sum of impressions registered against a target audience based on a GRP level of days or weeks in a schedule.

Gross Impressions

Refers to the sum of exposures to a schedule of digital place-based network announcements. Gross


Total number of opportunities for a target audience to view a sign.

Gross Opportunity to View Audience

Is the total number of incidences, over a period of time, where consumers are in an area where they have the opportunity to view an installed network. This number can be reported by demographic segment.

Gross Viewers

Refers to the total number of viewing incidences, over a period of time, to an installed network. This number can be reported by demographic segment.

Gross vs. Net Ad Cost

Costs of advertising or the rates for advertising are generally calculated in two formats

- net media and gross media. Net media forms 85 percent of gross media. Accordingly, an advertisement that has a gross media rate or cost of $10,000 will have a net media rate or cost of $8,500. The money that forms the difference between these two rates is the standard agency commission for services such as media buying, planning and trafficking, which are carried out by credited advertising agencies


Gross Rating Point

The total number of impressions delivered by a media schedule expressed as a percentage of a market population. One rating point represents a circulation equal to 1% of the market population. GRP’s (Gross Rating Points): The total number of rating points achieved for a particular period of time or schedule of advertisements.

GUI (Graphical User Interface)

The look at feel of a program or web site.

Gzip (.tar.gz)

A data compression format that is usually used by Linux / UNIX. When combined with Tar files, it holds multiple compressed files in a directory. This allows for many compressed files to be sent more quickly and easily over the web.


Hand Count

Substitute used to count circulation (potential exposure) when no official source of traffic counts is available. TAB has developed factors for statistically reliable expansion of sample counts to full daily exposure estimates.


Rendering of advertisement copy directly onto a billboard face using paint and brushes.


Billboard site directly in front of approaching traffic so that the face appears to be in the middle of the roadway. Usually at the beginning or end of a curve in the road.


Locations at strategic places that permit opportunities for very high levels of exposure. Formerly referred to as roof locations.

Hightail Displays

Posters affixed to the upper portion of the backs of buses, with copy area 15.5″ high by 63″ wide.

Highway Beautification Act

Federal billboard legislation sometimes called the HBA, or Lady Bird Johnson Act, passed in 1965. The HBA mandates state billboard controls on Interstate, Federal-Aid Primary highways and the National Highway System.

Highway Bulletin

Outdoor advertising sign (usually 12 feet high by 40 feet wide) located in a rural area with copy painted directly on the face.

Highway Wall

Advertisement painted directly on the side of a building along a main highway.


Acronym for High-Definition Multimedia Interface, a digital connector interface that combine’s uncompressed high-definition video, multichannel audio, and intelligent format and command data in a single cable; with a bandwidth of up to 5 Gigabytes, it supports all HDTV standards.


High Definition Television or signage that is displayed at a vertical resolution higher than 720.


Acronym for High-Definition Television, a display format for digital TV transmissions that boasts twice the number of scanning lines per frame (60 fps) than conventional Standard Definition TV (SDTV), as well as offering a much higher number of pixels and a wider aspect ratio.

Health Monitoring

A process by which the status of computers on a network are regularly checked to see if they are running properly.


Server computer that allows access to programs and documents by users.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

An internet document programming language that tells the browser how to display text and graphics on the screen.

Hyperlink or Hypertext

Objects, whether text or graphics, on an internet site that when selected using a mouse, navigate to a different page on the web.


(high definition television) The new generation of digital video content, capable of almost three times the clarity of legacy analog NTSC video. The standard HDTV formats are 720P, 1080i and 1080P.

HDTV Signage

See digital signage


An installation that is the final point from which video feeds for multiple channels are sent to broadcast or cable television customers. In addition to transmitting equipment, a head-end can contain feeds for various channels.

Health Monitoring

In information technology and multimedia terms, health monitoring refers to checking on the status of computers to see if they are still running.

High Color

A setting describing graphics that have 16-bit color, providing up to approximately 65,000 colors in the image.

Hit Area

(Hot Spot) The area of an interactive button that responds when the mouse pointer passes over it or clicks on it. This can be a rectangular area surrounding the button, or an irregular area defined by pixels in the button image.

Horizontal Scan Rate

A figure that describes the speed of the electron beam that creates the scan lines of a video or computer display. The horizontal scan rate for standard NTSC/PAL video is approximately 15 kHz. For VGA displays and above, scan rates of 31.5 kHz or more are used.

Host, FTP

See FTP server


(Hypertext Markup Language) HTML is the language used to create Web pages for display in Web Browsers. HTML can be created directly with text editors or Web publishing programs, such as DreamWeaver, or it can be the output of other programs that make dynamic WebPages on the fly. When you select “view source” from your Web browser, the code that you are viewing is HTML.


The abbreviation for hertz, or cycles per second. This is a measurement for frequency. You often hear Hz referred to in a computer’s CPU speed, or a monitor’s refresh rate. The CPUs in Personal Computers just passed from commonly being measured in MHz to being measured in GHz. Monitor refresh rates are most frequently measured in KHz. KHz means kilo-hertz. Kilo means 1,000. So 2 KHz is 2000 hertz. MHz means mega-hertz or 1,000,000 Hz. GHz means giga-hertz or 1,000,000,000 Hz. THz mean Tera-Hertz or 1,000,000,000,000 hertz.


Illegal Sign

Billboard erected or maintained in violation of current laws.

Illuminated Panel

Sign face equipped with lights capable of shining directly on the copy. Often located on streets with heavy night traffic.


Name of the sign structure’s owner, usually found on the top or bottom molding of the sign.


Strip imprinted with the name, address and/or phone number of the local dealer handling the product/service being advertised. Commonly placed across the bottom 20 inches of Posters.

Income Approach

Valuation approach based on the amount of income a property is producing or can produce over its remaining economic life.


Air-filled, three-dimensional displays for use at point-of-sale or special events. Usually taking the shape of a product, trademarked character, etc. May be affixed to Bulletins.

Inside Panel

All panels erected in a group at one location that face the same direction are classified as inside panels, except for the one closest to the traffic, which is the end panel.


Driving tour of advertising displays for pre-buy selection of sites, verification that copy has been posted, etc.

Intensive Showing

Intensified advertising campaign that includes more billboard faces than a representative showing in order to increase market penetration.


An outdoor unit equipped with lighting that provides night time illumination of an advertising message, usually from dusk until midnight.


Non-text graphics or pictures

Image Map

An interactive graphic image where different regions have different links. When the graphic is clicked, another program launches.


The number of people who have an opportunity to see an ad in a given period of time. Impression: Exposure to a digital place-based network, program or message. Impressions: undefined refers to how many times an audience member observes a digital signage ad or presentation.

Incentives: Financial or other offerings that are designed to increase participation in a survey.

Information Technology (IT)

A general term used to encompass networking, computers, and information systems.


Also called brightness. The LED industry measures display intensity in candelas per square meter, which is also referred to as nits.

Interactive Digital

An interactive layer is added to a digital signage system, allowing the targeted audience and users to engage with the on-screen content in real-time by means of a specialized devices, touch screen, or mobile phone.

Interlocking Sections

Billboard panels that are created so that each panel has a “tongue” or convex side and a “groove” or concave side on the opposite edge. Two or more billboard panels can then be pushed together to provide a secure and smooth joint.


An internal communications network used by a company that is unavailable to the public.

IPTV: Digital television service delivered via a broadband IP link using data communications wiring.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)

A company that provides internet connections for business and personal accounts. ISP service must be established before a connection to the internet can be made.


See bitmap; file format


(Internet Information Services) Microsoft’s suite of Internet-related software included with the Windows 2000 and above operating system software. IIS provides both FTP server and web server capability.

Image Processing

Enhancing and manipulating an image, such as by adjusting its size, resolution, or color palette.

Infinite Loop

See loop, infinite.

Information Display Systems

See digital signage

In-Store Digital Media

See digital signage


Where man meets machine and interacts, the most common form of interactive system is a touch screen or buttons on a kiosk type display device.

Interactive Digital Signage

An interactive layer is added to a digital signage system, allowing the targeted audience and users to engage with the on-screen content in real-time by means of a specialized devices, touch screen, or mobile phone.

Interactive Kiosks

Usually free-standing information displays that allow users to retrieve information through touch-screens, buttons, and video displays. Interactive kiosks are frequently controlled by computers running software written with multimedia authoring software.

Interactive Script

A script in which the viewer controls the direction of the production.


Process used to refresh video displays and some computer displays that alternately scans every other horizontal scan line in the display. Interlaced displays often flicker, especially when showing static images containing narrow horizontal lines.

Internal Communications

A term referring to communication within a company or supply chain. Also used to refer to the policies, departments, and specific technologies. Telephones, faxes, computers, bulletin boards, memos, newsletters, and email are all part of a company’s internal communications.

Interrupt Scheduling

A type of scheduling for pages that causes a scheduled page to play at a precise time, interrupting any other script activity currently occurring.

IP Address

An address in four-part numerical format that uniquely identifies a computer accessible over a TCP/IP-based network or the Internet. For example,

IP Multicast

(Internet Protocol Multicast) IP Multicast is a networking transmission protocol allowing multiple computers to simultaneously receive the same transmission. This is faster than sending packet to each individual computer, and is an efficient way to update many remote locations simultaneously. Each player site is “tuned in” for the packets being sent by the broadcast server. The question then arises, how can each remote site deliver customized content to its localized audience? The answer is in the fact that each player knows where it is, and makes intelligent choices about what parts of the broadcast it needs, if any. IP Multicast is not limited to the Internet and terrestrial connections, but can also be broadcast over Satellite to be received by inexpensive VSAT dishes

- often already part of a company’s infrastructure for their WAN. In this way, multimedia networks of unlimited sizes can be created.


(Industry Standard Architecture) A standard expansion bus for internal devices on the PC platform.


(Internet service provider) A company that provides web hosting, FTP hosting, email and other Internet services.


(Information Technology) IT is used to apply to everything having to do with computers, networking, and information systems. The “IT field” means the jobs and industry that surrounds configuring, installing, and keeping computers running. The term MIS (Management and Information Systems) is also frequently used. Most medium to large size companies have an IT or MIS department.

[ J ]


A programming language invented by Sun Microsystems. It is designed for writing programs that are downloaded to and run on a computer with small programs called ‘applets.’


A programming language that enables web pages to be designed with a higher level of interactivity.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)

A popular compression type for still image files. Works well with photographs.

Junior Poster

Small, standardized billboard used to display advertising to pedestrian traffic as well as street traffic. See Eight-Sheet.

[ K ]


An adjustment of the normal space distances between specific character combinations.


A word or phrase, generally typed into a web search engine used to find a particular term.

King Size Bus Posters

Posters affixed to the sides of public buses with a copy area of 27″ high x 141″ wide.


Small terminals placed in public places that provide a service or deploy information. They can incorporate and integrate many different types of technology, including digital signage.


An adjustment of the normal space between certain combinations of characters, to eliminate excess space.


The abbreviation for kilohertz, or thousands of cycles per second.

An electronic device that provides information (via a display), is interactive in nature (a multimedia combination), and allows for input (via an input device such as a touch screen or a keyboard). The kiosk is unique from a standard pc as it is created for a specific user and specific purpose and is owned, controlled, and operated by the deployed.

[ L ]


(local area network) a network of computers sharing a single server or servers in a single location, typically in an office or building. See also WAN.


A video storage medium that can play back high-quality video images and sound from a laser-read optical disc.

Layout, Screen

Referring to segmentation of digital signage screens. Also see Zoning.


(Liquid Crystal Display) LCDs are thin displays used for digital signage, TV, computer monitors, wristwatches, digital thermometers, microwaves and countless other technologies

- possibly the most common and diverse electronic flat screen technology in use today. LCDs contain two thin transparent surfaces (usually glass), with grooves full of a liquid crystal substance. Thin film transistors (TFTs) on the surface material apply an electric current to the liquid crystals. This current will polarize the crystals, making them twist. This twisting blocks light. When off, the liquid crystals go into random alignment and let light pass through.

LCD Projection Panel

A portable display unit that is placed on top of an overhead projector and connected to a computer so that the computer’s display can be projected onto a large screen.


(Light Emitting Diode) Diodes are electronic components that let electricity pass in only one direction. Light emitting diodes are diodes that emit visible light when electricity is applied, similar to a light bulb. When many LEDs are side-by-side, they can create pictures, such as the scrolling red LED signs found everywhere. LED displays are often confused with LCDs (liquid crystal displays), but they are different technologies. Most outdoor digital billboards use LED technology.

Linked Content

Content that is referenced by a script, but is not sent as part of the script when that script is sent to media players. Linked content can be updated at a separate time from normal script content or from an independent source.

Local Affiliate

Local television and radio affiliates broadcast national content while retaining regional control. For instance, major metropolitan areas may have CBS, ABC, NBC, FOX, UPN, and WB networks each represented by local channels.

Location Based Advertising

The placement of advertisements near an actionable location. In other words, location based advertising deals with strategically placing messaging near where buyer behavior can be most immediately influenced, and converted into a sale. This most often applies in retail settings, such as shopping malls.

Location Based Media

Refers to any public display media, such as signs, billboards and posters located out of home, usually near where the audience is near the point of purchase decision.

Log File

A text file consisting of time stamped status and error messages, detailing the operational history of a given piece of software.


A name or account under which someone gains a certain level of access to a computer.


A setting determining the number of times a sound, media clip or animation should repeat when it runs.

Larger Parcel

In condemnation, the portion of a property that has unity of ownership, contiguity, and unity of use, the three conditions that establish the larger parcel for the consideration of severance damages in most states. Sometimes contiguity is subordinated to unity of use. Used synonymously with parent holding.

Leasehold Estate

Right to use and occupy real estate for a stated term and under certain conditions. Conveyed by a lease.

Leasehold Improvements

Improvements or additions to leased property that has been made by the lessee.

Lease Interest

One of the real property interests that result from the separation of the bundle of rights by a lease, i.e., the leased fee estate or the leasehold estate.

Legal Nonconforming Use

Use that was lawfully established and maintained, but no longer conforms to current zoning or permit regulations.

Length of Approach

Distance, from which a billboard is clearly visible, measured in feet or seconds.

Line of Travel

The center of a lane of traffic moving in one direction.


Method of printing used to produce large quantities of billboard copy. The original design is etched on metal plates that are inked and put under pressure to transfer the design to paper.

Load Factor

Average number of passengers in each vehicle.

Location Codes

Letters used to designate the location of an advertising display on a street. Standard abbreviations are E/S east side, W/S west side, N/S north side, S/S south side

Location List

List of billboard sites where an advertiser’s message will be displayed for an advertising campaign.

Location Map

Map of the market with colored dots indicating the location of the billboards for a specific GRP/Showing.

Long Side

Billboard on the left side of the street, also called cross reader.

Landscape Orientation

A screen rotated to the width of the display is greater than the height which many more viewers identify with the prevalent widescreen TVs.

LAN-WAN: A LAN or local area computer network spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN).

LCD Screen (Liquid Crystal Display)

A thin, flat panel used for electronically displaying information such as text, images, and moving pictures. Among its major features are its lightweight construction, its portability, and its ability to be produced in much larger screen sizes than are practical for the construction of cathode ray tube (CRT) display technology.


Acronym for liquid crystal display, a thin, flat-panel display device containing liquid crystal solution between two transparent electrodes and two polarizing filters; when electrically charged the crystal molecules align in one direction or another in front of a light source, forming a pixel-rich, composite image.

LED Brightness

The brightness level of an LED is measured in milli-candelas. The materials used to manufacture the LED determine the brightness of the LED.

LED Degradation

The standard method used to express the life of a display is the time it takes to reach 50% of its day one brightness.

LED Illumination

The LED industry measures display intensity in candelas per square meter, which is also referred to as nits. The materials used to manufacture the LED determine the brightness of the LED.


Acronym for light emitting diode, a semiconductor diode that emits light when an electric current passes through it; in digital signage applications, clusters of red, green, and blue diodes are grouped together to form large panels, many of which are suitable for outdoor use.

Light Detector

Also called light sensor. An electrical component used to detect the amount or level of ambient light surrounding a display. If dimming has been set to “AUTO,” the light detector or sensor adjusts the intensity of the LEDs accordingly.

Line of Sight

The simultaneous viewing of more than one outdoor unit.

Local Playback

Files that exist and play on a local computer as opposed to an external source.

Location Based Advertising

The placement of advertisements near the point of purchase where it immediately influences buyers.

Location List

A listing of all locations included in a specific outdoor program.


An account profile giving a specific level of access to a computer or server.


A single repetition of all available digital signage content. Loop: A digital signage video or multimedia presentation that repeats at a standard interval for seamless continuous play.

Lower Third

Information, graphics and/or animation overlaying video; also known as chevrons’ and super bars.

Lowest Unit Rate (LUR)

The lowest rate offered by the network to any advertiser for a specific class of time.


Abbreviated “lm,” a unit of measuring light wavelengths perceived by the human eye; in the AV industry, it’s used to describe the brightness of a projector’s image.


A lighting fixture designed to hold fluorescent lamps. They are featured prominently throughout commercial and industrial complexes, and are powered by a transformer inside the housing. They house anywhere from one to four lamps depending on lighting requirements of a given space.

[ M ]

Mall Display

Backlit advertising structure located at strategic points in shopping malls, usually two or three sided, including directory format.

Mandatory Copy

Copy required by law to appear on the advertising of certain products, such as liquor and tobacco products. Applies to all print media.


Refers not only to geographic locations but also to demographic and behavioral characteristics provided by plant operators about its market area.


Defined area where a billboard plant is located. Can also refer to coverage, or percentage of population potentially exposed to the advertising.

Market Approach

Appraisal approach based on the analysis of sales prices for similar property.

Market Value

The most probable price, as of a specified date, in cash, or in terms equivalent to cash, or in other precisely revealed terms, for which the specified property rights should sell after reasonable exposure in a competitive market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, with the buyer and seller each acting prudently, knowledgeably, and for self-interest, and assuming that neither is under undue duress.

The Appraisal of Real Estate, 10th ed., published in 1992 by the Appraisal Institute…The specific definition of market value should be determined for each jurisdiction.

Media Mix

Combination of media types used together to meet the objectives of a media plan. Out-of-home media companies report that this segment of the media tends to enhance the overall effectiveness of various advertising campaigns, particularly by cost-effectively increasing reach and frequency.

Metropolitan Highway Bulletin (also called railroad bulletin)

Very large billboard at a site along a major highway or rail line approaching a metropolitan area. Standard dimensions are 18 feet high by 72 feet wide.

Minimum Showing

Fewer panels than a standard showing, sometimes used to sustain a limited advertising campaign.

Mobile Billboard

A billboard mounted on a truck or trailer that can become part of traffic flow, or parked specific locations.

Molding (also called molding trim)

Metal, plastic or wood frame surrounding the face of a billboard structure.

Monopole, or Unipole

Billboard frame structure mounted atop a single steel pole or column.

MSA (metropolitan statistical area)

A geographic area defined by the U.S. Census Bureau that comprises a significant population nucleus together with adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with the nucleus.

Multiple Facing

Advertising location with two or more adjacent (within 25′) or stacked panels facing the same direction.


(See three-message sign).


Refers to an advertisement that did not run as originally scheduled and is being re-scheduled with the intent to fulfill the original order/contract.

Mall Displays

Backlit advertising structure located at strategic points in shopping malls; usually two or three-sided.


General term used for audio, images, and video which are used to reach an audience of some sort.

Media Audit

A provider of syndicated local market consumer data, measuring most major U.S. DMA’s. Categories surveyed are consumer retail shopping behavior, product consumption, media usage, lifestyles behavior and all demographics.

Media Mix

The combination of media types used together to meet the objectives of a media plan.


The size of data that can be stored on a computer’s disk or chip.


Vinyl material with small holes and 3 different sized weaves, to allow wind pass through

Milli-Candela (mcd)

One thousandth of a candela.

Mobile Billboard

A truck equipped with one or more poster panel units. The truck can either be parked at specified venues or driven around designated localities.

Mobile Click

The user’s phone number is treated much like a web cookie, adding a layer of measurability to track user statistics across digital signage networks. It enables the dynamic digital signage system to recognize a unique user engaging with a social media application via a mobile phone.

MP3 (MPEG 1, audio layer 3)

A compression format used for audio which can be downloaded and used on either a computer or handheld MP3 player.

MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)

A standard for audio/video. There are three major MPEG standards: MPEG 1, MPEG 2, and MPEG 4.

MSF (minutes, seconds, frames)

A method of measuring time for a video. Frames are either 29.99 or 30 per second depending on whether it is drop frame or not


The integration of multiple forms of media including text, graphics, video, and audio.

Municipal Energy Programs

Kickbacks and various incentives offered by city governments to businesses reducing energy consumption through various means, including upgraded outdoor lighting and use of low energy “green” lighting.


The term marquee is often used to describe scrolling text effects for displaying headline news or short messages. Also see crawling text.


(Media Control Interface) The standard method of controlling multimedia devices before DirectShow for Windows platform. It is a standard for communicating with devices that support VCR-like operations like play, pause, stop, etc., such as MPEG playback cards. A given device might offer both MCI and DirectShow drivers.

Media Player

A media player, sometimes referred to as “player,” is a PC specifically designed to stand up to the rigors of a digital signage network. High-end graphics cards, small form factors, good processing speed and great cooling are what make a Media Player.

Media Processor

See media player


The abbreviation for megahertz, or millions of cycles per second.


The file-type extension used for MIDI compositions. See also MIDI; file format.


(Musical Instrument Digital Interface) a hardware and software standard for electronic musical instruments and related equipment. MIDI also defines the standard file format (.MID) used for MIDI compositions.


In the Sound menu, a set of control panels that allow you to adjust the volume and pan settings of all sound sources in a script.

Mobile Click

The user’s phone number is treated much like a web “cookie”, adding a layer of measurability to track user statistics across digital signage networks. It enables the dynamic digital signage system to recognize a unique user engaging with a social media application via a mobile phone.

Motion Displays

Any signs or displays with moving elements.


The file-type extension for digital video files in the QuickTime format. See file format.


(Motion Picture Experts Group) a universal standard used for the compression of digital video and audio sequences. MPEG sacrifices some image quality to achieve very high compression.


MPEG-4 is the latest compression standard developed by MPEG, the same group that brought us MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. MPEG-4 brings higher levels of interaction with content, controlled by the content developers. It also brings multimedia to new types of networks, including those employing relatively low bitrates, and mobile ones.


(minutes, seconds, frames) a way of measuring time on a compact disc (CD), expressed in the format mm:ss:ff, where mm is minutes, ss is seconds and ff is frames.

Multichannel Player

A player that outputs multiple streams of unique content to multiple display devices.


A multi-tile divides the source image into several “slices”, which are tiled together to produce a final image of the desired size. See also tiling


The combination of various presentation media such as text, sound, graphics, animation, and video. Multimedia displays

TVs, plasma display panels, LCDs or other video display devices delivering multimedia content, often connected to a computer. A touch screen is also a type of multimedia display but with interactive capability.

Multimedia Signs

See digital signage

Multi-Style Button

A selector-like button in the Text and Clips menus, used to access a variety of styles that can be applied to text or graphics. See also selector.

[ N ]


Narrowcasting describes the technology that is capable of delivering the multimedia programs to specifically targeted group of digital signage screens, including plasma, LCD and LED displays, placed in public places for advertising or information dissemination. Usually the screens are controlled by a central management system. The receivers or media players for each display are more intelligent in receiving the up-to-minute content from multiple sources and dynamically displaying the rich-media contents according to the designate programs. In contrast to traditional broadcasting, the programs for the targeted group of displays are far timelier, relevant and effective which opens a new dimension for advertising companies to offer enhanced sponsorship programs or businesses to reach their employees without geographic boundary.

Narrowcasting Networks

Narrowcasting networks are a new type of digital media designed to reach targeted portions of the public. They employ selective broadcasts of media-rich content to a variety of types of “receivers”. These receivers are typically some form of television, computer monitor, or flat screen display such as plasma display panels (PDPs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with a multimedia player attached. They emulate the appearance of signs, billboards, and kiosks, located in prime locations for exposure to your desired demographics. These players can then be selectively updated with scheduled, rapidly produced, and rapidly adapted programming. Narrowcasting networks may display targeted messaging to bus terminals, retail outlets, sports arenas, theaters, outdoor billboards, office buildings, and other public venues. More narrowcast networks are springing up around the world as the cost of deployment decreases, and the ease of maintenance increases.

Network administrator

an information technology professional responsible for setting up, maintaining, and securing a computer network. Network administrators often work in, or run, the IT department of a company.

Network Operator

A company that manages and maintains a large computer network. Media network operator often refers to an advertising network operator, which is a company owning and operating a large number of remote location-based multimedia players delivering targeted messaging to high traffic locales.


Sending news out over the Internet, either point-to-point, or with multicast for client computers to receive and display.

New Media Triad

The media distribution model by which brands and advertisers can engage with consumers using various digital media, all within an integrated campaign.


(National Television Standards Committee) the color video and broadcasting standard used mainly in North America and Japan. NTSC screen resolution is 525 lines and its refresh rate is 60 Hz. The NTSC broadcast system was replaced with the all-digital ATSC broadcast system in the United States on June 12, 2009.

Null- A cable used to connect the serial ports of two computers that are physically close together. The connection simulates a modem connection, but can usually run at a higher baud rate because there is no telephone line noise.

NAC Rating (Obsolete)

Rating of Net Advertising Circulation derived from multiplying the space position value (SPV) by the daily effective circulation (DEC). Replaced by the Outdoor Visibility Rating System (OVRS).

Neighborhood Showing

Small local advertising campaign focused on one or more neighborhoods.

Net Reach

Estimated total number of persons within a target audience exposed to the advertising schedule, often expressed as a percentage.

Non-Conforming Sign

Billboard that may have been legally erected and maintained but does not conform to current regulation.

Non-Illuminated Panel

A billboard panel not equipped with lights. Also called a regular.

Non-Traditional Out-of-Home

Displays in out-of-home advertising that are not Bulletin or Poster Panel billboards. The most common non-traditional out-of-home media are bus wraps and bus sides, street furniture (bus shelters, telephone and street kiosks), commuter rails/subways, airport displays, mall advertising, wallscapes, mobile displays, ski advertising, truck advertising, and movie theater advertisements.


Program content designed to reach a specific group defined by a particular demographic.


Dynamic digital signage that uses low bandwidth communication from the server to the display devices.

Near Field Communication (NFC)

Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless technology that enables the communication between devices over a distance of less than 10 cm. An NFC device can work in two modes: active (battery powered) and passive (radio energy powered).There is three main ways to use NFC:


Net Ad Costs

The net cost is the cost of an advertisement when there is no advertising agency involved, or the amount that an advertiser expects to be paid after a 15 percent payment has been made to an advertising agency. In order to calculate the net rate of advertising costs, multiply the gross rate by .85. For example, $10 gross rate multiplied by .85 becomes $8.50 net rate.

Net Reach

The total number of persons within the target audience exposed to the advertising schedule, often expressed as a percentage.


Computers that are linked together with the intent to share information and resources. Networks can be set up on a Local Area Network (LAN) where computers are linked together in a single office or Wide Area Network (WAN) where computers are connected at different geographic locations.


The process of sending news over the internet.


National Television Standards Committee: A committee which standardizes color sequences in television for both the United States and Japan.

[ O ]

Occupancy Factor

Ratio of units occupied to total units available. Also, ratio of actual income to potential income if all units were occupied.

Off-Premise Sign

Structure advertising a business, product, service or entertainment not on the property where the sign is located. A billboard is an off-premise sign.

Official Count

Traffic count taken from official government sources such as city, state or county departments of transportation.

Official Sign

Directional signs and other notices erected and maintained by public officials or agencies.

On-Premise Signs

Sign structure advertising a business, product, service or entertainment on the property where the sign is located. A billboard is not an on-premise sign.

One-Sheet Poster (transit)

Small, vertical poster used on subway and train platforms.

One-Sheet Poster (non-transit)

Small, vertical poster placed near the entrance of point-of-sale locales such as convenience stores, liquor stores and other retail outlets.

Outdoor Advertising

General term referring to many forms of advertising messages outside the home.

Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Inc. (OAAA)

An organization that represents the standardized outdoor advertising industry in the United States, including many outdoor advertising companies, plant operators, suppliers, and affiliates. OAAA represents industry interests before Congress and regulatory agencies and also provides assistance to its members working with local and state governments.

|Outdoor Advertising Industry

Companies that own and maintain out-of-home advertising displays to rent space to advertisers.

Outdoor Placement Specialists

Companies, networks or agencies that specialize in out-of-home media development, placement and evaluation. They are employed by advertisers and advertising agencies to negotiate, contract and check buys because of their expertise in these media forms.

Outdoor Visibility Rating System (OVRS)

Method for sign owners and advertising agencies to rate the visibility of a billboard to passing traffic. No longer used extensively.

Out-of-Home Media Source

Comprehensive source book of types of out-of-home media companies and their rates. Published by SRDS, Inc., New York, N.Y.

Out-of-Home Media

Industry term for outdoor advertising. Usually includes billboards, street furniture, and transit.

Outside Panel

Billboard panel located closest to the street when two or more panels are positioned side-by side.


Paper strip pasted over a section of an existing Poster, to show a price, a date, or other time-sensitive information. Used interchangeably with snipe.


Period of time a plant operator allows an advertisement to remain on display after the end of the advertising contract period.

Official Counts

The traffic counts taken from official (governmental) sources such as city, state or county departments of transportation.

Off-Premise Sign

A sign that advertises products or services that are not sold, produced, manufactured or furnished on the property where the sign is located. An outdoor display is an off-premise sign.


An active connection to the internet.

On-Premise Sign

A sign that advertises products or services that are sold, produced, manufactured or furnished on the property where the sign is located.


Out Of Home

All advertising specifically intended to reach consumers outside the home.

Opportunity to See (OTS)

The probability of being exposed to a medium’s content and/or the advertising it contains. OTS does not require actual exposure to all content or advertising.

Optimal Viewing or Drive Times

The times of day relative to a sign location that have proven to offer the greatest number of viewer impressions, and therefore bringing the highest price for advertising display; often near malls, major intersections or busy highways. (Frequency) The average number of times an individual has the opportunity to see an advertising message during a defined period of time. Frequency in outdoor advertising is typically measured over a four week period.

Organizational Alignment

Consistency of message content and tone across each delivery mechanism including executive and staff, ads, packaging, public and media relations, etc. each communication can result in brand-building or if consistency is lacking the result can be “de-branding”.

OTS (Opportunity To See)

The probability a screen has to be viewed by consumers. OTS is a percentage of the people who see the screen compared to the people that enter the venue.

Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA)

Founded in 1891, the OAAA is the national trade association that represents and supports out-of-home media operators, suppliers, affiliates and international members.


The term refers to any form of media that carries advertising messages to consumer audiences outside the home. Outdoor products are divided among four primary categories: billboards, street furniture, transit and alternative media.

OVAB (Out-of-home Video Advertising Bureau)

The official resource for information on out-of-home video advertising, marketing and metrics.

Overhead Lighting (mobile)

An industry standard means of lighting a billboard copy area that uses multiple overhead lights attached to the vehicle structure and allows the poster ad area to be viewed in low-light conditions.


The continuation of an outdoor advertising program beyond a contracted period. An override, if offered by an outdoor company, is provided at no additional cost to an advertiser.


(Opportunity To See) the probability a screen has to be viewed by consumers. It is unlikely that a screen will be seen if it is hidden away or placed in a low dwell-time area. OTS is expressed as a percentage ratio comparing the amount of people who actually see the screen to the amount of people that entered the venue where the screen is installed. OTS is a useful variable for brands and advertisers.

Out-of-Home Advertising

Refers to advertising delivered in locations other than the home. Primary examples include billboards, movie theaters, and gas stations.

Out Wipe

The way in which an element moves off a page. See also element wipe; page wipe.

Out-of-Home Media Networks

Out-of-Home Media Networks are like private television channels run by companies, organizations, and advertisers without having to have a complete television studio. For example, a growing number of companies are finding it viable to install small pilot programs where they push rapidly produced content, such as news, weather, and stock quotes, mixing in advertising. As the pilots prove successful in driving consumer behavior, the network can be expanded from dozens of screens, to hundreds or thousands, located throughout a country or region. Such out-of-home media networks are sometimes referred to as location-based media, or location-based advertising, because they appeal to the target audience at or close to the point of purchase, such as shopping malls, retail chains, or franchise operations.


A term used to describe out-of-home electronic display networks. See Out-of-Home Media Networks.


(Out-of-home Video Advertising Bureau) the official resource for information on out-of-home video advertising, marketing and metrics.


A feature of most video cards that allows particularly smooth digital video playback without overloading the computer’s CPU.

[ P ]


Group of signs included in an advertising contract.

Paint Plant

All of the painted billboards, or “permanent paints”, in a given area owned or operated by one sign company.

Painted Wall

Advertisement painted directly on the wall of a building.

Paint-Out. To obliterate previous copy in preparation for a change in design. Also called Coat-out or Blank-out.


Usually refers to a billboard face, but can also refer to a single sign structure.

Panels Per Facing (PPF)

Number of panels on a structure that face the same direction.

Parent Holding

(See larger parcel).

Permanent Bulletin

Advertisement or display that remains at one location for the entire term of the advertiser’s contract.

Permanent Paint

(See permanent Bulletin above).


License granted by a state or local government that authorizes a sign structure to be erected and maintained, usually at a specific site.


Total billboards under a single ownership in a city or market.

Plant Capacity

Number of #100 showings that a plant can produce simultaneously.

Plant Defined Market (PDM)

Geographic area of outdoor media distribution as defined by a local plant operator and based on county coverage.

Plant Imprint

Sign company’s logo on an advertising structure.

Plant Operator

Owner or manager of an outdoor advertising company in a particular market area.

Plant Rep (representative)

Agent who represents more than one plant operator in different markets, working to place advertising campaigns in each plant market in return for fee or commission.

PMSA (primary metropolitan statistical area)

Second level in the U.S. Government’s three-tiered system of metro area classification. PMSAs are characterized as metropolitan areas having a total population of 1 million or more, anchored by a large urbanized county or cluster of counties with strong internal economic and social links. By definition, PMSAs are the components of Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs), which represent the third tier and are made up of two or more contiguous PMSAs.


Physical placement of a billboard on a certain site. The angle of the sign in relation to the road, height above ground level, and directions of faces.


Advertisement posted on an out-of-home media structure. Short for Poster Panel.

Poster Panel

Outdoor advertising structure with a face to display advertising copy. Usually one of two sizes: 30-sheet “bleed” posters have total dimensions quoted as 12 feet by 25 feet (actually 10.5 feet by 22.8 feet); 8-sheet posters have quoted dimensions of 6 feet by 12 feet (actually 5 feet by 11 feet).

Poster Showing

Group of Poster Panels displaying an advertiser’s message for a specific period of time.



Advertising panel with copy area normally quoted as measuring 12 feet high by 25 feet wide.



Advertising panel with copy area normally quoted as measuring 6 feet high by 12 feet wide.

Posting Date

Date on which the plant operator is scheduled to start a showing. The first day an advertisement is to be displayed.

Posting Date Leeway

Period of time within which a posting should be completed. Usually plus or minus five days.

Posting Period

Length of time copy is displayed on one panel, usually figured in 30-day increments.

Post-ride. Driving tour to check each billboard location for advertising copy as prescribed.


A changeable billboard face composed of 3-sided panels that are synchronized to rotate together, displaying three different messages when each rotation is stopped. Also called 3-message signs.

Potential Gross Income (PGI)

Amount of revenue that would be generated assuming full occupancy at market rental rates.

Potential Viewer Family

One or more persons in a family who pass a typical Poster showing with the opportunity to view the advertisement.

Porta-Panel. Mobile panel that may be wheeled to a given location. Frequently used for merchandising purposes at retail or other locations during special events.

Pounce Patterns. Method most frequently used in the past for enlarging art and copy to fill Bulletin size. The design is projected onto large sheets of paper and traced in outline form by perforation with an electric needle. The perforated sheets, known as pounce patterns, are held against the painting surface and dusted with charcoal dust to reproduce the outline of the design on the surface to be painted.

Preferred Position

Billboard sites selected for their highly attractive location, often with high traffic circulation.


Application of paste to the back surface of Poster sheets in the shop, rather than in the field.


Driving tour of panels to view the specific locations that are scheduled to be included in a showing.

Premiere Panel

Advertisement printed on a vinyl sheet stretched over a 30-sheet Poster.

Premier Square

Advertisement printed on a vinyl sheet stretched over stacked Posters or Junior Posters.

Proof of Performance

Certification that advertisements have been displayed according to the contract.

Public Service Copy

Display copy for a civic or philanthropic purpose at reduced cost or free of charge in the interest of community support.

Passive Methods

Methods for collecting information that do not require a respondent’s active participation.

PDF (Portable Document Format)

A document created by Adobe software which allows for unchanged formatting for viewing large file-sized documents. Viewing a PDF requires Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Permanent Bulletin

A bulletin that remains permanently located at a specified site throughout the term of a contract, usually for long periods. A permanent bulletin program can build strong brand recognition in specific market areas.

Person-to-person (P2P) mode

Two NFC devices communicate with each other exchanging information


Photoelectric Cell

The light-sensitive component within a photo sensor. The actual device might be a photodiode, a phototransistor, or a photoconductive cell. It is important to make a distinction between a photocell and a complete photo sensor device. A photocell might be any device in which light controls the electron emission from a cathode, the electrical resistance of an element, or the electromotive force produced by a cell; it is usually incorporated in an electric circuit and used in mechanical devices such as door openers or home outdoor night lights.


Slang for two commercial announcements from the same sponsor that are presented back-to-back within a single commercial time segment. An example of this is two 15-second commercials in a 30-second time slot. This is also called double spotting.


Short for “picture element,” the smallest unit of data on display screen; represents only one color at time.


All the outdoor advertising units in a market that are operated by a single company. Sometimes the term refers to the outdoor company itself.

Plasma burn

The permanent disfiguring of a plasma screen image caused by the continuous display of a high-contrast object.

Plasma screen

A thin, flat-screen display device that contains an inert mix of neon and xenon gases in cells beneath glass; when electrically charged the gases turn into plasma that emits ultraviolet photons that, in turn, excite phosphors on the back of the cells, creating colored light.


Any device (hardware or software) that distributes video and audio content to a display.


A grouping of commercials and non-program material in which more than one advertiser’s commercials air; also referred to as a commercial interruption or commercial break.


Acronym for point of purchase. Retail marketing term for a display or any advertising that targets customers near the cash register or the counter where items are bought; also known as point of sale (PoS), but PoS often refers to the equipment used to facilitate the retail transaction.

Portrait Orientation

A screen rotated to the height of the display is greater than the width; portrait orientation can often be more eye-catching than horizontal or landscape orientation, which many more viewers identify with evermore prevalent widescreen TVs.

Post Buy or Post Analysis

In-depth analysis executed after the flight has completed.

Poster Panel

An outdoor unit that can accommodate 30-sheet or 8-sheet poster displays.

Posting Date

The date when a poster program is scheduled to commence. A five day leeway is customary.

Posting Instructions

Detailed directions provided to an outdoor company by an advertiser or agency assigning specific copy to specific locations.

Posting Window

A window of five working days after a scheduled posting date in which all contracted locations can be posted without penalty.

Power Point

A Microsoft Office software product that allows for slide and presentation creation. Some digital signage solutions can utilize PowerPoint content.

Premiere Panel

A standardized display format, typically measuring 12′ 3″ x 24′ 6″ in overall size. Premiere panel units offer the impact of a bulletin by utilizing a single vinyl face stretched over a standard 30-sheet poster panel.

Premiere Square

A standardized display format, typically measuring 25′ 5″ x 24′ 6″ in overall size. The premiere square utilizes a single vinyl stretched over two stacked 30-sheet poster panels. In some markets, this same technique can be applied to stacked 8-sheet poster panels, typically measuring 12′ 6″x 12′ 1″ in overall size.


An in-market field check of available panels to determine locations for a specific GRP/showing.


The most basic qualification for vehicle audience exposure is to be in the Presence of that vehicle. For a vehicle with sound, it means being in a location where the vehicle is audible. In all cases, it requires being in a location where the vehicle is visible.

Printed Vinyl

Increasingly the industry standard for outdoor display poster. Printed vinyl’s yield clean, bold color graphics when professionally printed, and are more durable and easy to post than older paper poster.

Probability sampling: Any of several different sampling approaches in which each element in the population has a known, non-zero probability of being selected.

Proof of Play

a secure document where content is logged each time content is displayed. Proof of play shows a summary of count and duration for every hour. This is often used to charge advertisers. Proof of play is a reporting mechanism in which logs are used to show that an ad actually played back on a digital signage system; some advertisers now also demand “proof of display,” verification that the ad was actually shown on the screens, as well as third-party audited play logs.


Certification by an outdoor company that contracted advertising services have been rendered.


Established methods for communication and data transfer between two devices over the web.

Purchase Intent

The likelihood that an individual consumer will buy a particular product.

Passive Interactivity

Where a consumer interacts with a media systems device without doing so consciously, for example triggering a motion sensor.


(point of purchase) the term usually refers to the industry concerned with customer behavior at the location of the purchase decision. POP is considered one of the most important aspects of advertising and merchandising. It is believed that the most critical time to influence buyer behavior is when they have money in hand.


(Phase Alternating Line) the color video and broadcasting standard used mainly in Western Europe and South America. PAL screen resolution is 625 lines and its refresh rate is 50 Hz. The PAL broadcast standard has been largely replaced in respective countries with the all-digital DVT-T standard.


(Peripheral Connect Interface) an advanced expansion-bus standard for internal peripheral devices, used most commonly by high performance graphics adapters.


(Plasma Display Panels) PDPs, also known as gas plasma displays or plasma screens, are flat screen display devices that are used for television, computer monitors, and dynamic signage. They consist of two layers of glass surrounding cells of xenon and neon glass. Surrounding electrodes switch the cells on and off, causing them to emit light and create the picture. This emitted light makes PDPs have an appealing vibrancy that competes with Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs), the technology of traditional televisions.

PEG Channel

(Public, Education, or Government Channel) PEG is a commonly used acronym by the local television industry to describe publicly funded access stations. These may be run by municipalities, school districts, or volunteers.

Periodic Scheduling

A type of scheduling that defines ranges of time within which events are allowed to play.


Attributes that may be associated with a folder to restrict the types of access that different users have to it.


A software/hardware construct that moves data from one location to another.

Pixel Resolution

Resolution measurement in terms of discernible pixels on a given digital display. Usually expressed in horizontal then vertical pixels, such as 1366 x 720.


Just as solids, liquids and gases are states of matter, plasma is a state of matter. Specifically, plasma is ionized gas. That is, gas that has been given an electrical charge by being stripped of electrons. Such ionized gas is the most abundant observable form of matter in the universe, being a main ingredient in stars and nebulas. And as if we’re not already seeing enough of the stuff, it’s also what goes inside those flat panel displays called “plasmas” that are popping up all around us. Why? Because when you apply an electromagnetic field to plasma, it glows, making for a nice, vibrant TV screen, computer monitor, or digital signage.

Plasma display panels

Plasma display panels are components in the current generation of flat panel televisions, computer monitors, and digital signage. They consist of a material called “plasma”, which is an electrically charged noble gas (usually argon, xenon, or neon) sandwiched in millions of compartments between 2 panes of transistor-covered glass. An electrical charge is applied to the gas to make it glow red, green, or blue. This is similar both to how neon signs work (the application of an electrical charge to a noble gas), and how cathode ray tube (CRT) works, in illuminating cells red, green or blue to create an image.


Refers to the list of media clips and their play order by time or other heuristics to be displayed on the digital signage screen.

Play log

A record of information created from the digital signage system reflecting the content played, system performance, and other data. Synonyms are billing log, performance log, and audit Log.


The file-type extension for images in the PNG (pronounced “ping”) format. PNG is a relatively new and advanced format, featuring both compression and extensibility.

Polling Interval

The length of time that may elapse before a media player checks for a certain condition, such as whether a job has been delivered to its job folder, or whether its script has been updated.

Port, IP

A numerically designated access point for messages of a particular type in TCP/IP network communications.

Point of Purchase Advertising

Any form of advertising, signage or communication within a retail environment that is designed to influence or assist the consumer in locating and purchasing a product or service. POP Advertising includes shelf edge marketing, aisle end gondolas and other forms of promotional retail fixture.

Proof of Play

Proof of play is a built-in feature of proper digital network management software. It is a secure document where advertisement flight details are logged every single time an advertisement is sent to the screen. It records the date, time of day, and for how long the advertisement was displayed. Technically the proof of play only states that the advertisement was sent to the screen. Additional network features (play log) and technology is required to tell if the screen was actually switched on and working at that specific time. Proof of play, combined with other measurable variables, is important in calculating how many people actually looked at your advertisement in order to determine ROI.

Public IP Multicast Displays

A device capable of receiving an IP multicast transmission and displaying the contents, often used to update large numbers of visual display devices including digital signage.

Push Software

Software that pushes news and information from a broadcast server to a media player client. Push technology can be used to deliver vital information to screens without the player asking.

[ Q ]

Queen Size Bus Poster

Posters affixed to the sides of public buses with copy area of 27″ high by 85″ wide.

QR code (Quick Response Code)

Is a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional code) first designed for the automotive industry. More recently, the system has become popular outside of the industry due to its fast readability and comparatively large storage capacity. The code consists of black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background. The information encoded can be made up of any kind of data.


A software program that allows for play and view of multiple formats including: graphics, animation, text and sound.

Quick-Access Button

In the File menu, a button that leads directly to a specific folder, eliminating the need to navigate step-by-step to the folder.

[ R ]

Rain Lap

Poster sheets trimmed so that the upper sheets overlap the lower sheets, similar to the way shingles are laid on a roof. This reduces the possibility of flagging due to rain seepage between the Poster and the panel face.

Ratchet Strap

Wide tie lines attached at the edges of the flexible vinyl sheet carrying advertising copy. Used to stretch the vinyl taught over sign and secure the edges behind the face.


Quoted or printed cost of billboard advertising, usually stated for GRP or Showings on a per month basis. Available from individual sellers or from centralized statistical sources.

Rate Book (also rate card)

Pamphlet or book that lists the prices charged by a sign owner.


Billboard that has been evaluated for visibility, competition, direction of traffic, type of area, and circulation.

Rating Point. One rating point equals 1% of the market’s population.

Reach. Approximate percentage of the target audience population that potentially will be exposed to the advertising message at least once during a showing. Usually measured over a 30-day period.


A non-illuminated billboard.

Renewals, or Renewal Paper

Extra Poster sheets sent by a printer or advertiser to a plant operator to replace those sheets that may be damaged during display period. Renewal paper is often 10% to 20% of the total order.


Repainting of permanent displays.

Replacement Cost

Current cost of a similar new property that has the nearest equivalent utility as the subject property.


Posting a panel a second time, possibly with the same copy.

Reposting Charge

Additional charge incurred for posting a change of design before expiration of a display period.

Representative Showing

Advertising display on multiple panels generally used to provide complete market coverage.

Reproduction Cost

Current cost of reproducing a new replica with the same or nearly identical materials and design.


Line drawing of the original painted display scaled to fit a differently proportioned space.

Ride the Boards (or, ride the showing)

Driving tour to review the physical characteristics of faces in a showing. Used to assess each sign’s attractiveness, the presence of obstacles to vision, normal visibility to drivers, and the length of time the sign can be observed easily.

Right of Way

Area along highway or arterial street that is under the control of a city, county or state. Billboards are located on private land adjacent to the highway right of way.

Rotate or Rotary

Periodic movement of an advertiser’s message from one Bulletin location to another at stated intervals to achieve greater reach in the market. Also refers to an individual billboard that is often included in rotation plans.

Rotating Plan

The scheduled locations where and times when an advertiser’s message will appear.

Royal Facing

Embellishment where an enlarged display area is affixed to the face of a sign and extends beyond the molding to create a larger appearance.

RAM (Random Access Memory)

Hardware used inside of a computer for short term storage capabilities. More RAM can be added to a computer as the need arises.

Rate Card

Is a document provided by a company/publication featuring the organization’s rate for advertising, it may also detail any deadlines, demographics, policies, additional fees and artwork requirements. The smaller the company/publication, the less information that may be available in the rate card.


The estimate of the size of the audience, expressed as a percent of the audience population. The percent sign is not shown and the rating may represent overall viewing or a specific segment of audience viewing within a defined geography or universe.


The approximate percentage of a target audience’s population which will be potentially exposed to an advertising message at least once during a specified period of time. Reach is normally measured over four week periods. Reach: The net number of people exposed to the digital place-based network during a given period of time, often one or four weeks.

Reader Mode

The NFC device is active and reads a passive RFID tag; for example reading and storing a Web address or coupon from a poster for interactive advertising

Real Time

Live broadcast of events or the time an event actually takes place.


The ability to remember a particular advertisement or segment from within a digital place-based program. This can be measured with (aided) or without (unaided) prompting.


Advertising that is effective because it is timely, relevant to an audience, as opposed to the frequency of impressions; the theory behind why PoP displays are thought to be highly effective; also based on an education psychology theory that says information acquired last is remembered best.

Refresh Rate

The number of times per second the screen is updated or “repainted.” Depending on the video standard, the actual image is changed only 30 times per second for NTSC signal or 25 times per second for PAL. However, most LED systems use pulse-width modulation to generate the color levels, and if the image were only “painted” once for every change, there would be a noticeable flicker on the display. A refresh rate of greater than 60 times per second will minimize the flicker. In general, LED displays should be refreshed at 120 times per second (120 Hz) or greater.

Remote Control

Control of a display from a remote and/or central location via a communications network.

Remote virtual media

A method of connecting remote media storage devices such as hard drives, CD-ROM drives, etc. to a local system. Users at the local system can access these systems, and read and write from them as if they were local.

Resolution: Refers to the clarity and detail of an image relating to the number of lines (horizontal and vertical) of pixels; measured in dots per inch (dpi), with the higher pixel density the better. Resolution

Resolution is often conveyed in dots per square inch. The resolution most often refers to the detail of an image. The higher the dots, the clearer the picture quality will be.

Response Rate

The percentage of eligible sample units that provide usable, complete information in a survey.


Red, Green, and Blue. These combined colors are used to create an image on a computer screen or digital signage display.


The physical inspection of the units that comprise an outdoor program in a market

either pre-buy or post-buy.

Roll Formed

Steel which has been heat formed and molded with rounded edges, preventing injury from sharp edges and allowing safer movement and installation of equipment. Allows greater durability at edges and better appearance.

Rotary Bulletin

A standardized 14′ x 48′ bulletin moved to different locations in a market at fixed intervals, usually every 60 or 90 days, to achieve greater reach in the market.


A “rotation” is one ad position in a loop.


A computer router is a hardware or software device that acts like a telephone exchange. It recognizes the addresses of packets of data and routes them over a permanently connected network towards their destination.


A horizontal line of pixels; in print graphics, a horizontal line on a table


Acronym for Really Simple Syndication, Web feed technology that automatically detects when content on one site is updated and through subscriber feeds and aggregators, distributes it to another Web site or to a digital signage content player.


Acronym for Real-time Transport Protocol, a transport protocol for formatting packets for transmitting video and audio over the Web.


Is an acronym for Real Time Streaming Protocol, a standardized protocol for the remote control of a streaming media server.


(Remote Access Service) A service provided by Windows Dial-Up Networking to establish a network connection with another computer via modem.


Automatically rearranging and/or adjusting the color palettes of images so that they share colors, with the least possible distortion of the images’ intended appearance.

Return Value

The value those results as the output of a function or the evaluation of an expression.


A particular folder chosen as the base reference point, relative to which all other paths within a web server or FTP server are defined.

[ S ]

Sampling precision

The degree of accuracy of the scale used to measure the fluctuations in amplitude of a sound that is being digitized. Measured in bits, an 8-bit sample can store one of 256 different amplitude levels, while a 16-bit sample has 256 times greater accuracy.

Sampling rate

The number of samples taken per second when digitizing an analog signal. The quality of the digital reproduction improves as the number of samples taken per second increases. Scaling

refers to the scale of the resolution of video or image content to fit the screen or zone resolution.


Creating scripts or playlists that handle particular content over a period of time based on time and date.


(Séential Couleur avec Memoire) the video and broadcasting standard used in France, Eastern Europe, Russia, and most of Asia and Africa. SECAM has the same screen resolution of 625 lines and 50-Hz refresh rate as PAL.

Self-Running Script

Also referred to as a continuous script; a script designed to run continuously; for example, to demonstrate a product or service, or provide information without interruption.


Hardware device or computer software that is used to compose a musical score, transcribe it into a MIDI file and play or record the result using MIDI instruments.

Squeeze Back –Referring to a technique that reduces the size of a full screen TV broadcast channel to fit in a multi-zone screen.

Special Event

An event that is not associated with a file. Special events can be added like pages in the Main menu, or like elements in the List menu. They are used to control a device or an element, for example, changing the volume of a sound.

Store and Forward

A networking term referring to when information is stored at routing points before its ultimate destination. Store and forward can be used to reduce the load on the original server. Players can retrieve their data from other players instead of the original broadcast site.


In the billboard industry, usually refers to renting one or more billboards by an advertiser.

Sales Clause

Lease provision allowing the lesser to terminate the lease if the land is sold.

Sales Comparison Approach

Appraisal approach that compares the subject property to similar properties that have been sold recently, applying appropriate units of comparison, and applying the market prices to the subject after making appropriate adjustments. Also called direct sales comparison approach, and market approach.

Sales or Lease Rider

Additional term or condition attached to a lease. An addendum.

Salvage Value

Estimated amount of money that is expected to be realized from the whole property, or a component of the whole property, that is retired from service for use elsewhere.

Satellite Systems

Within the billboard industry, method of electronic communications using satellite connections to turn billboard lighting on or off from a central location, or warn of power outages, bulb expiration, and other maintenance needs.

Scenic Byway

Road that has been designated through legislation or other official declaration as special for its scenic value. The road can be classified as a parkway, greenway, trail, heritage highway, drive, road, byways or backway. Portions of scenic byways may pass through non-scenic commercial and industrial areas, or through comprehensively zoned urban cities. States and localities have the right to determine whether they want to place billboards in these non-scenic commercial and industrial portions of designated scenic byways.

Scrap Value

Estimated amount of money expected to be realized from property if sold for its material content rather than its productive use.

Screen Printing

Method of printing small to moderate quantities, which employs stencils rather than metal plates.


Removable sections of the faces of older Bulletins allowing rotation of the painted sections to another location. Can also refer to Poster sheets.

Secured Unbuilt

Leased location where an advertising structure is not yet built.


Distance measured from the line of travel to the center of the advertising panel.

Short Approach

Advertising panel fully visible from 40 feet to 75 feet to pedestrian traffic, 100 feet to 200 feet to vehicular traffic moving faster than 35 mph, and 75 feet to 150 feet to traffic moving slower than 35 mph. Also refers generically to an unusually brief period of time to read a billboard.


Potential location that would be appropriate for outdoor advertising.


Number of panels used by an advertiser to reach a certain percentage of the market population. Common showings are #100 (meaning 100% of the market), #75, #50 and #25. For instance, a #50 showing is estimated to be seen by 50% of the population, and might be achieved with 15 faces in one particular market but may require 100 faces in another.


Copy from a previous advertisement that is visible after new copy has been posted.

Sidewalk Displays

Backlit displays with copy area normally 46″ wide by 67″ high

Silk Screen

Another term for screen printing, a method for producing small quantities of Posters.

Single Facing

A panel at least 25 feet from a Poster, or 50 feet from a Bulletin, along the line of travel.



Small added strip of paper pasted over a section of a billboard advertisement, showing a price, a date, or other time-sensitive information; synonymous with overlay.

Solar-Powered Panels

Billboard lights powered by batteries storing solar-generated electricity.

Space Position Value (SPV)

An obsolete rating system of a billboard’s visibility. Replaced by the OVRS (Outdoor Visibility Rating System) in 1989.

Special Showing

Premium rates for a small number of particular panels.

Special Surface Effects

Small reflective disks or other material attached to sign faces to make copy sparkle or shimmer and create the illusion of motion and texture.


Unusually large or irregular-shaped Bulletins that may be embellished with electrical or 3-dimensional effects to attract special notice. Often built to specifications of one advertiser for use over a long term.

Speculation Lease

Obtaining a leasehold interest in anticipation of erecting a billboard.

Spotted Map (or Location Map)

Map provided by a plant operator to an advertiser, with dots identifying the locations of the billboard faces in a showing.

Stacked Panels

Panels with the facings built one above the other. Also called decked panels.


Advertising structure on which posters are displayed. Synonymous with poster panel. Also used to describe all of the sheets of paper necessary to make a complete poster display

one complete poster. A 30-sheet poster may consist of 10 to 15 sheets of paper while an 8-sheet generally consists of one to three sheets.

Standardized Industry

That part of the outdoor advertising industry that includes signs of standard sizes and shapes established by the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA).

Standard Showing

Synonymous with representative showing, one of the recognized intensities of a billboard ad campaign: minimum, representative, or intensive.

Station Posters

Poster of various sizes located on train, subway or commuter rail platforms.

Stock Poster

Standard Poster copy design for a specific category of business, which may be purchased and used by advertisers in that category merely by adding their trade name to the design.


Bulletin design developed to give a modern appearance.

Substitution Principle

An appraisal principle stating that a typical buyer will pay no more for a property than the cost of an equally desirable substitute.


In the billboard industry, the fabric or material on which an advertisement is printed. Common substrates are flexible vinyl, canvas, mesh, paper, and translucent materials.

Sun Shelters

Advertising panels built as integral part of shelters from the sun, often near a beach.

Super City Panels

Backlit Posters affixed to the street side of phone booth kiosks, illuminated at night with visibility to vehicles and pedestrians.

Super-King Bus Poster

Posters affixed to the sides of public buses with largest Transit format: 30″ high by 240″ wide.

Surface Arterial

Major street of a city or town, easily accessible, usually with heavy traffic and restricted parking.

SaaS (Software as a service)

Is sometimes referred to as “on-demand software,” is a software delivery model in which software and its associated data are hosted centrally (typically in the (Internet/cloud) and are typically accessed by users using a thin client, normally using a web browser over the Internet. SaaS has become a common delivery model for most business applications, including accounting, collaboration, customer relationship management (CRM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), invoicing, human resource management (HRM), content management (CM) and service desk management. SaaS has been incorporated into the strategy of all leading enterprise software companies.

Sales Lift

Revenue increase. Usually expressed as a % increase over normal

Sample Frame

A listing that should include all those in the population to be sampled and excludes all those who are not in the population.


The color intensity of an image. A 100% saturated color does not contain any white; adding white reduces saturation. An image without any saturation is also referred to as a grayscale image. Saturation: is the intensity, or the purity, of color present on a video screen.


The advertising purchased from a vendor and defined by the variables of market, number of advertising units, flight, length of advertising and rotations.

Screen Zoning

Refers to dividing a digital signage into regions containing separate static or real-time content feeds, or a mix of both.


A mode of message transition on an LED display where the message appears to move vertically across the display surface.

Seasonal Variation

The premium or discount placed on the relative value of a viewer demographic based on the time of the year. For example, since reaching viewers is more beneficial at the Christmas buying season, a premium say, 30% might be added to a weekly traffic count, while a post-Christmas viewer total would be discounted due to a lower inclination to purchase.

Self Promo Space

The use of hidden poster, as with hurricane frame, whereby a second self promo printed poster sheet is hidden for quick reveal behind a customer ad printed sheet on a billboard. For use to promote the billboard when billboard space is vacant.

Self-Directed Engagement

Media delivered in an environment in which the potential audience makes a conscious decision to engage with the messaging.


Cognitive perceptions or emotional feelings toward a particular brand or product.


A group of two or more frames that may consist of words, graphics or animation that are grouped together under one name. It may range in size from a few frames up to a hundred or more.


A computer system that allows for client software to be run on other computers.


A level of delivery that directly relates to the population of the market. Typical showing levels are: #100, #75, #50 and #25 GPR/Showings. The number of panels involved in an actual showing varies by market depending on the total market population and the average DEC of the market’s inventory.


Any structure used to display information regarding a product or service. An outdoor unit is a sign.

Site Visit

A visit to the site by a qualified technician to ensure proper equipment installation.


Service Level Agreement. This is sometimes referred to as Quality of Service and included in contracts as a pre-agreed requirement for a system to be on operational status.

SMS (Short Message Service)

Is a text messaging service component of phone, web, or mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between fixed line or mobile phone devices. SMS text messaging is the most widely used data application in the world, with 2.4 billion active users, or 74% of all mobile phone subscribers. The term SMS is used as a synonym for all types of short text messaging as well as the user activity itself in many parts of the world. SMS is also being used as a form of direct marketing known as SMS marketing.


An adhesive strip that is used to cover a portion of copy displayed on an outdoor unit.

Social Media Applications

Invites people to engage with beneficial and entertaining content. It encourages people to share information and talk to each other in a user-controlled media environment.

Sound Card

A hardware extension that allows for audio to be played on a computer.


A bulletin that is usually larger than 14′ x 48′ and is positioned at a prime location in a market. A spectacular often utilizes special embellishments.


The ability for an advertiser to have their logo associated with a particular piece of content as in sponsored by “Advertiser”. An animated sponsorship is same as above with an animated logo of advertiser.

Spotted Map

A map showing all locations included in a specific outdoor program.

Standardized Unit

Outdoor units constructed in accordance with the specifications established by the OAAA.

Strand Vision (Strand Vision)

A digital signage platform that utilizes a thin networking medium (a strand) to connect to private or public content distribution servers which communicate the visual marketing messages to a local screen.

Streaming Media

A data transfer that happens over the internet which allows for flow of audio and video information to be played in real-time. A player is needed to interpret and send a signal of the streaming media to a display device.

Streaming Media

Video or other media compressed and delivered to an audience on-demand or live without the need for a complete transfer of the original file.

Streaming Video

Refers to a one-way video transmission over a data network. It is widely used on the Web as well as private intranets to deliver video on demand or a video broadcast. Unlike movie files (MPG, AVI, etc.) that are played after they are downloaded, streaming video is played within a few seconds of requesting it, and the data is not stored permanently in the computer.

Street Furniture

Advertising displays, many that provide a public amenity, positioned at close proximity to pedestrians for eye-level viewing or at a curbside to impact vehicular traffic. Street furniture displays include, but are not limited to: transit shelters, newsstands/news racks, kiosks, shopping mall panels, convenience store panels and in-store signage.

Structural Effects

Letters, figures, mechanical devices or lighting that is attached to the face of an outdoor unit to create a special effect and enhanced visual appearance.

Study Design

The specification of the sample frame, sample size and the system for selecting and obtaining information from/about individual respondents in the population.

Sunlight-Readable Displays

Panels with coatings and films that reduce the amount of reflective light, making them ideal for digital signage in brightly lit or even direct sunlight areas.

Surface Arterials

Major streets in towns or cities that carry a heavy flow of vehicular traffic.


Short for separate video, a video connection interface that carries luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signaling separately to prevent color crosstalk and for improved image reproduction.


A switch is used to network multiple computers together. Switches are more advanced than hubs and less capable than routers. Unlike hubs, switches can limit the traffic to and from each port so that each device connected to the switch has a sufficient amount of bandwidth. However, switches don’t provide the firewall and logging capabilities that routers do.

Synchronized Ad

An advertisement that works as contextual advertising, running next to editorial or “infotainment” content with similar subject matter.

[ T ]


A standard for PCs that allows applications to easily use serial devices (such as modems) that have already been configured in Windows.


A networking protocol designed for flexible, high-speed communications, used for LANs and the Internet.


Refers to a reusable visual presentation styles with swappable assets such as image and text overlay. Templates are commonly used in digital signage content publishing system for displaying weather, news, live feeds or data on screen dynamically.


This technology is a projected moving image. It is considered passive signage because users cannot interact with the window using this specific technology.


A ticker or crawler is a small screen space dedicated to presenting headlines, promotions and other vital pieces of information.


A time limit for an operation. If the timeout period expires before the operation completes successfully, some default or alternative action is taken.


Physical and logical layout of a networked system.

Touch-Enabled Glass

Just as with the “through-glass” technology, touch-enabled glass is a projected moving image. However, this glass display will change and update based on interaction from a user, touching the window.


Also called a touch-sensitive screen, a computer monitor or flat-panel displays attachment that can sense the location at which a viewer touches the screen to respond to a question or prompt in a program. This device is commonly used in interactive digital sign applications. See interactive digital signage.


Data being transferred over a network. Downloading text and graphics represent low-bandwidth traffic while streaming video is higher.

Triggered Content

Media that can over-ride planned content when certain pre-determined conditions are realized such as the proximity of a shopper, removal of an item from display for examination or the reading of various inputs such as bar code, loyalty card, biometrics, etc.


A standard developed to allow imaging devices such as scanners and digital cameras to communicate with PCs.

Target Audience

Profile of the most desired prospects for a product or service; listed by characteristics such as demography, lifestyle, brand or media consumption, purchase behavior, etc.

Three-Message Sign

Billboard face composed of many thin triangular sections in a vertical position that are synchronized to rotate together, producing three separate messages when the rotation stops briefly. Also referred to as post-turn, tri-face, and by the proprietary product name “tri-vision.”

Traffic Audit

Third party authentication of traffic circulation of billboard sites. Data are collected either by official (government) count or by hand count. All counts are verified by the Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB).

Traffic Audit Bureau for Media Measurement (TAB)

An independent, nonprofit organization that is recognized as the official national authority for authenticating traffic circulation in the outdoor advertising industry.

Traffic Count

Recording the number of vehicles and pedestrians passing a given point. Used by TAB to authenticate the potential exposure of billboards.

Traffic Flow

Graphic presentation of the traffic volume along any system of streets, arteries or highways.

Traffic Origin Studies

Research for advertisers regarding roadway travelers from outside the immediate vicinity. License plate data are correlated with residence data and demographics to determine the origins and destinations of persons having potential exposure to certain billboards.

Transit Advertising

Advertising media appearing on the exterior or interior of public transportation vehicles or stations (buses, trains, commuter rail, subways, platforms, terminals, etc.)

Transit Shelter Displays

Advertising panels that are an integral part of a freestanding covered structure located at bus stops, usually with 24-hour illumination.


Displays affixed to overhead railroad bridges providing large size, head-on visibility to traffic.


Molding surrounding the face of a billboard structure.


A brand name often used generically for a special billboard face made with triangular louver construction to display three different advertising messages in a predetermined sequence.

TRP (total rating points)

(See GRP)

Two-Sheets, or Convenience-Store Displays

Small framed Posters placed near entrances of convenience stores, independent grocery stores, and other retail points-of-sale.

Tar (.tar)

Short for Tape Archive, this data format is usually used by Linux / UNIX which holds multiple files in a directory. This is more commonly used to send many files easily over the web.

Target Audience

The profile of the most desired consumer prospects for a product or service, listed by characteristics such as demography, lifestyle, brand or media consumption and purchase behavior. Target Audience: refers to a defined group of people at which an advertiser’s message product or service is aimed.


A pre-formatted file that allows for a foundation in creating a new set of content. Template: A document or file that contains pre-formatted design elements, enabling the customization of content and text to a specific digital signage application.

Text Crawler

A text segment that is displayed in a crawler box section at the bottom of a digital signage display.

Third-Party Advertisers

Agencies used by digital signage operators to coordinate the delivery and sales transactions of advertising content and campaigns from merchants, companies, and media resellers.


Horizontal text streamed across a screen often used to deliver headlines, promotions, and up-to-date stock information to an audience.

Tongue and Groove Design

Billboard panels that are created so that each panel has a “tongue” or convex side and a “groove” or concave side on the opposite edge. Two or more billboard panels can then be pushed together to provide a secure and smooth joint.

Traffic Audit

The third party verification of traffic circulation in a market. Traffic audit information is used to calculate outdoor advertising DEC figures.

Traffic Count

The recording of the vehicles and pedestrians passing a given point; used by TAB to authenticate the potential exposure of outdoor advertising structures. All counts are verified by the TAB. Traffic Count: The number of people who enter a venue.

Traffic Origin

Research which provides advertisers with information about the audience passing outdoor advertising structures, not just those in immediate vicinity of the individual location. Collected license plate data are correlated with residence data and demographics to pinpoint the origin and destinations of persons having potential exposure to outdoor advertising.

Transit Displays

Displays affixed to moving vehicles or in the common areas of transit terminals and stations. Transit displays include, but are not limited to: bus panels, train/rail panels, airport panels, taxi panels and mobile advertising signage.

Transit Poster (bus)

Posters attached to the exterior of buses. Common displays are king panels, queen panels and tail panels. King panels are on the street-side of the bus. Queen panels are on the curb side of the bus. And tail panels are on the back of the bus.

Transit Poster (commuter rail)

Posters displayed in commuter rail stations and on trains.

Transit Shelter

A curbside structure located at regular stopping points along urban bus routes.


A visual effect used on an LED display to change from one message to another.


A mode of message transition on an LED display where the message appears to move horizontally across the display surface.

Tri-color Chip

A discrete LED package containing the three colors (RGB) forming one pixel.


An outdoor unit with a slatted face that allows three different copy messages to revolve at intermittent intervals.


Total Rating Point

Also called GRP (Gross Rating Point). The term refers to the total number of impressions delivered by a media schedule expressed as a percentage of a market population.

TRP (Target Rating Point)

Defined as the rating point delivery to the advertiser’s specific target audience. Most big advertisers use GRPs as benchmarks, but use TRPs to measure actual delivery to their specific customer base.

True Color Accuracy

Conformity or exactness of color match, clarity and accuracy within the individual primary color groups of red, green and blue. Measuring and adjusting both the color and the intensity of individual pixels on an LED Digital board to ensure image consistency across the entire display.

[ U ]

Un-Zoned Commercial and Industrial Area

An area with no comprehensive zoning, or where a local municipality cannot zone. Billboards are generally allowed in un-zoned commercial and industrial areas where other legitimate business activity takes place.

Urban Panel

Displays in subways and at station entrances. Copy area measures 28″ high by 58″ wide.

Unilluminated Unit

An outdoor unit that has not been equipped with lighting for nighttime illumination of an advertising message. The DEC for an unilluminated unit is calculated using a 12 hour viewing period.


Any outdoor advertising display. Unit: Duration of the Network’s typical Ad Unit.


The precise opposite of download. The transfer of data from the computer being used to another computer.

URL (Universal Resource Locator)

The unique web address of a file or document on the internet.


(Universal Naming Convention) a standard format for paths referring to locations directly accessible on a local area network. For example, a video at servershared_filesapnews.wmv.


(Universal Resource Locator) a string of text that specifies the location of objects accessible through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), typically a web address such as a home page. A Web URL begins with “http://”.

[ V ]

Vehicle Load

(See load factor).

Video Billboards

Large video screens that display full color ads to motorists, usually after sundown.

Video Drive-By

Technology enabling buyers to view plant operator’s inventory of locations via video recording.

VAR (Value added Reseller)

A reseller of a product of hardware or software.

VBR (Variable Bit Rate)

A two-pass encoding that compresses a movie file to the most optimal data rate possible. Unlike uniform data rates, VBR varies from second to second.

Vector Graphics

Also referred to as ‘object oriented’ graphics. Vector images can be scaled without distortion and, due to their relatively small size; they can be transferred easily over the internet.

Vehicle Audience

Vehicle Traffic with Notice; a Vehicle Audience metric suitable for comparison to static media.

Vehicle Exposure Frequency

Number of separate exposures of a vehicle audience member during the venue visit or other time period.

Vehicle Reach

The net number of viewers, of specified characteristics, in the vehicle zone who noticed the vehicle, during a time period.

Vehicle Traffic

The number of visits, over a period of time, with presence in the vehicle zone.

Vehicle Zone Dwell Time

The number of seconds the viewer is in the Vehicle Zone with Notice.

Vehicle Zone

The physical area in which a person is able to see and/or hear a specific, place-based advertising vehicle.


Refers to a specific channel or publication for carrying the advertising message to a target audience. For example, one medium would be magazines, while one vehicle would be Time magazine.

Venue Reach

The net number for visitors to the venue during a time period.

Venue Traffic

The total number of visits, over a period of time, occurring in venues (i.e. locations) where a network is installed. This number can be reported by demographic segment.

Venue Visit Frequency

Number of venue visits per visitor during a time period.

Venue Visit Time

The time spent in the venue during the total visit time.


The place and location of the advertising network and screens. Examples include supermarkets, office buildings, gas stations and other places where consumers can be found.


The process of checking with respondents after they have been interviewed to be sure the person was actually interviewed and that the interview was done correctly and completely

where and when it was supposed to have been done.


Acronym for Video Graphics Array, an analog computer display standard with a resolution of 640 x 480 and a 256-color palette; most VGA devices use the HD15 connector; although analog, VGA video from a PC is used in many digital signage applications by using VGA extenders and splitters.

Video Advertising Networks & Screens

Video networks integrating targeted entertainment and/or information program content with advertising narrowcast through digital networks and/or screens in place based venues such as big box and small retail, transit, malls, grocery, health clubs medical offices, gas stations, office buildings, hotels and other out of home consumer venues.

Video Advertising

Full-motion video, with or without audio, commercial, can play full screen or with an enhancing graphical banner.

Video Wall

A wall mounted or frame-mounted checkerboard configuration of multiple video screens showing different images or the same image spread across multiple screens.


A single-sheet substrate on which an advertising message is rendered by computer production. Vinyl is primarily used on the face of bulletins & Premiere products.

Virtual Private Network (VPN): A VPN is used in Digital Signage networks to provide secure, reliable connectivity as a private network but at much lower cost. Using a VPN the Digital signage network can operate outside of the internet or other organizational connectivity infrastructure to assure cost-effective, secure and reliable network operations at required levels.


(Value-Added Reseller) A person or company that sells, services, configures, and/or trains clients to use an advanced product. Application software installations are often set up and maintained for their customers by VARs.


The process of inserting a serial number into a file name or folder name to indicate the order in which successively newer versions of a file with the same base name have been received on the media player.


(Virtual Private Network) a VPN is used in Digital Signage networks to provide secure, reliable connectivity as a private network but at much lower cost. Using a VPN the Digital Signage network can operate outside of the Internet or other organizational connectivity infrastructure to assure cost-effective, secure and reliable network operations at required levels.


(Very Small Aperture Terminal) VSATs are small satellite dishes used for PrimeStar and DirecTV among other things. In addition to tuning in satellite TV, they can be used to receive data such as IP multicasting. VSAT can be used to create a wide area computer network (WAN) infrastructure.

[ W ]

Wall Bulletin

Large mural or display on the exterior wall of a building. Also called wallscape.

Wave Posting

Concentration of Poster showings in a succession of areas within a market. Usually coincides with special promotions in the designated areas.

Whole Property

(See larger parcel).

Wind Load

Specified wind velocities that a sign structure should withstand based on its design and materials.

Wait-warping: An effect of certain types of digital place-based advertising, whereby customers who are entertained while waiting for service experience reduced perceived wait times and increased satisfaction levels.


Murals painted or attached directly onto the exterior surface of a building.

WAV (.wav)

Digital audio sound file extension, pronounced ‘wave.’


The distance in a periodic wave between two points of corresponding phases. The LED’s wavelength determines its color.

Weather Proofing Features

Engineering features which may increase the life of billboard structures and equipment. In LED Digital displays, computer and electronic equipment within the cabinet is protected by such features as air conditioning or environmental seals.

Web Designer

An individual who is responsible for the look and feel of an internet site being hosted on the world wide web. Both design and web-based programming knowledge is necessary to be a web designer.

Web Developer

The individual responsible for building a web site’s technical capabilities. A developer needs software programming skills.

Web Site

A place on the internet where specific messages are communicated through use of text, graphics, audio, video, and any other type of dynamic media.


Movies, videos, or radio and television that is delivered on a live or delayed basis via the internet.

Weighting: Statistical adjustments, conducted before data are analyzed, which adjust for respondents’ unequal probabilities of selection in probability samples.

Wi-Fi: Wireless networks use radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios. The computer’s wireless adapter translates data into radio signals and transmits it with an antenna, and a wireless router receives the signal and decodes it.

Wind Loads

A means of describing the amount of wind force tolerated by a given structure or poster type. Wind load varies widely according to equipment.

Wind Trespass

Outdoor sign design or poster sheeting allowing wind to invade and potentially damage either the structure or poster.


A help file that guides users through a process for setting up a specific application.


(Wide area network) a network of computers sharing servers in multiple locations, such as the different offices of a large company. See also LAN.


(Wireless Fidelity) a local area network (LAN) that communicates via radio waves on the 802.11 standard instead of wires.


A special character that can be used for pattern-matching in specifying the names of files to work with.


WinScript, also known as WSH Script, is uncompiled program code written to be executed by the Windows Script Host.


A transitional visual effect that defines the way one or more elements (text and/or graphics) of a screen page moves onto and/or off the page.

[ X ]


(Extensible Markup Language) XML is a standard data format used for text files and information in computer memory that allows easy data processing and exchange between different applications. XML is commonly used for feeding live data to digital signage screens.


(Extensible Stylesheet Language) XSL was the original proposal to allow formatting of XML files for display. It has since diverged into XSL FO and XSLT. They each derive from XSL, but use different parser programs and achieve slightly different goals. XSL FO, which stands for XSL formatting objects, is most often used for outputting PDF files with extreme formatting and pagination control. XSLT, which stands for XSL transformations, is most often used to convert one XML data structure into another.


(Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations) XSLT is a standard subset language of XML designed to allow one XML data structure to be transformed into another. For example, XML files can be transformed into HTML pages (the way this website is made), or into WML for display on Web-enabled mobile phones.

[ Y ]

YPbPr (also Y/Pb/Pr or Y, Pb, PR)

A set of video color spaces used to encode RGB information for Progressive Scan capable Component video connections; the analog version of YCbCr connection, contains the luma or brightness (Y) information along with the difference between blue and luma (Pb) and the difference between red and luma (Pr).

[ Z ]

Zip (.zip)

A data compression format that holds multiple compressed files in a directory. This allows for large files to be sent more quickly and easily over the web.

Zoning, Screen

Refers to the technique of dividing digital signage screens into multiple content zones. Also see Layout.